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Male Reproductive SG

Male Reproductive System

QuestionAnswer
What is the starting point for the sperm? Testis
What does the testis produce? Spermatozoa
When the sperm arrive in the epididymis are they motile? No
Name the layers of the testis Tunica vaginalis (from abdominal wall). Tunica albugenia which surrounds it and sends septa that divides the lobes into lobules
What is in the lobules? Convoluted seminiferious tubules that produce spermatozoa
Myoid cells Have contractility, Squeeze the sperm through
Spermatogonia Stem cells for spermatogenic lineage. They divide and some of them differentiate and move closer to the lumen
S1-S4 S1=primary spermatocytes. S2=secondary spermatocytes after meiosis. S3=Early spermatid. S4=Late spermatids
Describe the late spermatids They have a flattened nucleus and they finally develop into mature spermatozoa and are released in the lumen
Sertoli cells Line the tubule, have columnar epithelium, provides nutrients, transports fluid, nuclei have a oval shape, nuclear membrane branches
What are between the sertoli cells? Tight junctions and occluding junctions. This seals off the basal compartment from adluminal compartment (Blood-testis barrier)
Spermatogenesis Development of spermatogonia into spermatozoa
Spermiogenesis Development of spermatids to spermatozoa. Late spermatid phase where the cyotplasm is sloughed off and gets phagocytized by the Sertoli cell
How long are secondary spermatocytes present? They quickly disappear because they enter a second meiosis
Gonial cells Exist within pockets of the basal membrane of Sertoli cells. As the cells develop they travel towards lumen. Microtubules act as railroad tracks to guide the cells
What happens when the gonial cell approach the occluding junctions? Another occluding junction forms in the membrane behind it, and then this occluding junction opens up, (the seal is maintained) and the cell travels through the occluding junction
Cytoplasmic bridge Cytoplasmic bridge between the cells. Each cell is at the same stage of development. When the residual bodies are sloughed off from the late spermatids the bridges are lost
Chemotatic factors Spermatozoa respond to chemotatic factors released from the oocytes. They aid to navigation.
Calcium role Triggers the movement of flagella for the spermatozoa. Dihydropyridine drugs can block calcium channels which inhibits motility and cause infertility
Testosterone Leydig calls produce it under the influence of luteinizing hormone released form anterior pituitary.
Testosterone and androgen-binding protein (Sertoli cells produce it) It binds to the protein and this enables the seminiferous tubule to concentrate testosterone. Androgen is under influence of follicle stimulating hormone
Inhibin from Sertoli cells Down-regulates the release of follicle stimulating hormone
Testosterone and hypothalamus Some go back and give negative feedback by decreasing the release of release factors to decrease the release of LH and FSH
Rete testes epithelium Simple cuboidal, cillium and short microvilli
Efferent ducts epithelium Lined with psuedostratified columnar epithelium. Some are ciliated to promote movement of the spermatozoa. Some are non-cilated and absorptive
Epidymis epithelium Elongated stereocilia, and elongated microvilli, towards tail of epididymis is becomes less prominent
Ductus deferens Inner longitudinal, circular, outer longitudinal. Have sterocilia
Seminal vesicles to ejaculatory duct epithelia Seminal vesicles have a lot of smooth muscle, and ejaculatory duct loses its muscular layer
Urethra glands Mucousal glands that secrete directly into urethra. Main glands tend to have benign tumor formation but are easily detectable. Cancerous usually form distal and not easily detected
Prostate epithelium simple Columnar or psuedostratified epithelium that release secretions into lumen. With aging, corpora amylacea develops