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CT Farmer Test 4

Cells and Tissues - Dr. Farmer - Test 4

Hormone Produced by endocrine cells; Chemical messenger produced by 1 cell type which affects function of another cell (target cell); Target cells must have receptor specific for hormone; Secreted directly into blood or lymph
Endocrine Tissues Frequently works in associate with NS; Isolated cells-enteroendocrine cells; Mass of endocrine cells embedded in exocrine glands-islets of Langerhans; Endocrine organs
Pituitary Gland Hypophysis-Adenohypophysis (anterior) and Neurohypophysis (Posterior)
Adenohypophysis Pars Distalis; Pars Intermedia; Pars Tuberalis
Pars Intermedia MSH-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
Neurohypophysis Pars Nervosa; Infundibulum
Adenohypophyseal/Neurohypophyseal Origins Adenohypophysis-Rathke's Pouch, Oral Ectoderm, Loses attachment with oral cavity; Neurohypophysis-Neuro Ectoderm, Outgrowth from floor of diencephalon, Remains attached to brain via infudibulum
Adenohypophysis Pars Distalis - 75% of pituitary; Chromophobes; Chromophils; Secretion regulated by hypothalamic releasing hormones
Chromophobes Probably undifferentiated cells
Chromophils Acidophils-Somatotropes-secrete hGH (somatotropin), affects epiphyseal plates, Mammotropes-secrete prolactin, stims milk secretion; Basophils-Thyrotropes-TSH-causes thyroid hormone secretion, Gonadotropes-FSH and LH
FSH Female-ovarian follicle development; Males-SErtoli cell to secrete androgen binding protein
LH Females-Maturation of follicle and maintains corpus luteum; Males-called ICSH-Leydig cells secrete testosterone
Corticotropes Secrete ACTH-promotes growth of adrenal cortex and secretion of glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids
Pars Nervosa hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract; axons of neurons of supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei; Herring bodies-distal tips of axons; Oxytocin-paraventricular nucleus, stims smooth m. contraction of uterus and myoepithelial cells of mammary glands
Pars Nervosa continued Vasopressin (ADH)-supraoptic nucleus-acts on DCTs of kidney making more permeable to H2O, generates hypertonic urine; Pituicytes-glial-like cells found in pars nervosa
Hypophyseal Blood Supply Inferior hypophyseal aa. to neurohypophysis; Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system-delivers hypothalamic regulating hormones to adenohypophysis, sup. hypophyseal aa. form primary capillary plexus around stalk and median eminence of hypothalamus
Hypophyseal Blood Supply continued Secondary capillary plexus in adenohypophysis
Thyroid Gland 2 lobes, isthmus, CT capsule, Follicles, Parafollicular cells, Hormones
Follicles Structural and functional units of gland; Follicular cells-simple cuboidal; Colloid-precursor to T4(thyroxine) and T3(triiodothyronine), thyroglobulin; Only endocrine gland to store secretions (extracellularly); Regulated by TSH
Parafollicular Cells Produce calcitonin; Regulated by blood Calcium levels
Hormones of Thyroid Follicular hormones T3 and T4 stimulate metabolic rate; Calcitonin-lowers blood Calcium levels by inhibiting bone resorption
Parathyroid Glands 2 pair-embedded on posterior of thyroid; Cords of chief cells (increase blood calcium by increasing # and activity of osteoclasts and decrease Phosphate by decreasing resorption in kidney tubules, promoting excretion) and oxyphil cells (unknown function)
Adrenal Glands Paired glands superior to kidney-suprarenal glands; 2 glands in one (cortex and medulla); Adrenal cortex; Adrenal Medulla; Blood supply
Adrenal Cortex From mesoderm; Synthesizes and secretes hormones only on demand; 3 layers; Zona glomerulosa-15%; Zona fasciculata-78%; Zona Reticularis-7%
Zona Glomerulosa 15% of cortex; Secretes mineral corticoids-aldosterone; Maintains electrolyte and H2O balance; Regulated by renin-angiotensin system; Unaffected by ACTH
Zona Fasciculata 78% of cortex; SEcretes glucocorticoids-cortisol; Preps body for max immediate energy demand, part of fight/flight stress response; Depresses immune function and inflamm. response; Regulated by ACTH
Zona Reticularis 7% of cortex;
Pineal Gland Epiphysis cerebri or pineal body; Pinealocytes make melatonin-involved in diurnal rhythms, innervated by ANS neurons; Brain sand-crystallinized Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Phosphate
Cell to cell Interactions and communication 2 types-NS-hard wiring b/t body parts (rapid, short-lived); Endocrine-hormones-diffuse, widespread (slower, more diverse, longer-lasting)
Hormones Messengers to cells; Bind to specific receptors to exert effect on target cell; Act at surface (plasma membrane) or inside (nucleus); Amplify response to small # of signaling molecules
Structural Classification of Hormones Amino acid derivatives-Epi; Peptide-ADH; Protein-Insulin; Lipid-based-Steroids formed from cholesterol
Functional Classifications of Hormones Growth; Rates of metabolic processes; Concentration; Stress Response
Distance of Effect Endocrines-travel through blood from site of synthesis to target cell, may be distant from each other; Paracrines-relatively local, produced close to site of action, many active in inflamm. response, prostaglandins and histamine
Receptor Requirement for Hormone-Target Interactions Specific interaction similar to enzyme-substrate interaction; Binding of ligand (hormone) causes changes in receptor
Site of hormone interaction Steroids-Cytoplasmic or nucleic receptor, acts on nucleus, acts as gene activator-binds to enhancer region of target genes; Other Hormones-can't enter cell, bind to plasma membrane recep, signal transduction-ligand/recep complex activates 2nd messengers
G Protein linked membrane receptors Binding of ligand activates G-protein
G-protein Structure Alpha, beta, and gamma subunits; Alpha subunit binds GDP or GTP; Binding GTP releases Alpha from Beta-Gamma complex; Alpha-GTP can initiate signal transduction; Can act via cAMP or IP3/DAG 2nd messenger pathway
Tyrosine kinase receptors Tyrosine kinase; Phosphorylates tyrosine residues; Activated by growth factors; Bound receptors aggregate in plasma membrane; Activates Kas (specific G-protein) or phospholipase C
Second Messengers cAMP; IP3 and DAG; Calcium ions
cAMP GTP-G-alpha activates adenylate cyclase which converts ATP to cAMP, which activates protein kinase A, which phosphorylates cellular proteins-produce different effects in different cell types-phosphodiesterase degrades cAMP
IP3 (inositol triphosphate) and DAG (diacylglycerol) G protein or tyrosine kinase activates phospholipase C, which converts inositol phospholipid to IP3 and DAG, then IP3 binds to Ca channel protein and releases CA++, which binds to calmodulin and activates cell processes,
IP3 and DAG continued The DAG activates protein kinase C, which phosphorylates cell proteins
Calcium ions Elevated calcium binds to calmodulin; Calcium-calmodulin complex binds to kinase or phosphatase
Glycogen breakdown as an example of signal transduction in liver Ligand-epi; Receptor-beta-adrenergic recep linked to G-protein; 2nd messenger-cAMP activates prot kinase A, causing cascade of phosphorylation events that ultimately activate enzymes that cleaves glycogen into glucose-1-phosphate; loss of cAMP inactivates
Glycogen breakdown continued Protein kinase A and allows phosphatases to dephosphorylate enzymes, thus shutting down process
Urinary system function and components Filter metabolic wastes from blood; Maintain acid/base balance; Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance; Hormone production; Pair kidneys; Pair ureters; Bladder; Urethra
Kidney Structure Hilus-blood vessels, lymphatics, nn. enter and exit, renal pelvis, major/minor calyces collect urine; Cortex-renal corpuscles; Medulla-pyramids of tubules separated by cortical columns (of Bertin); Medullary Rays-columns of tubules extending to cortex
Kidney Structure continued Renal Lobe-medullary pyramid and overlying cortex; Renal lobule
Kidney blood supply Renal aa, interlobar aa, arcuate aa (corticomedullary junction), interlobular aa (in cortex), afferent arterioles, glomerulus, efferent arterioles, peritubular capillary plexus (surrounds tubules, vasa recta-juxtamedullary nephrons), interlobular vv,
Kidney blood supply continued Arcuate vv, interlobar vv, renal vv
Nephron Functional unit of kidney, renal corpuscle, PCT, loop of Henle-descending stratight portion of PCT, thin limb, ascending straight portion of DCT, DCT
Renal corpuscle Glomerulus-capillary tuft; Bowman's capsule-encloses urinary space; Podocytes-visceral layer of BC-pedicels, filtration slits; mesangial cells-support cap wall and basement memb, act as phagocytes
Renal corpuscle filtration barrier Endothelium of glomerular capillaries, fused basal lamina, pedicels
PCT Longer than DCT; Convoluted and straight portions; Simple cuboidal with brush border; Absorbs 85% of NaCl and H2O, glucose, amino acids, and small proteins; Secretes creatinine
Loop of Henle Allows production of hypertonic urine; Descending limb permeable to H2O; Ascending limb impermeable to H2O; Thick ascending limb actively transports NaCl of tubule
DCT Simple cuboidal, NO brush border; Smaller cells than PCT; Macula densa-part of Juxtoglomerular apparatus; Secretes H and ammonium ions to maintain acid/base balance; responds to aldosterone by resorbing Na and secreting K
Collecting tubules and ducts Cuboidal epithelium with distinct lateral borders; Vasopressin (ADH) increase permeability to H2O allowing it to return to blood; Delivers urine to renal pelvis
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Afferent arteriole-juxtaglomerular cells, modified smooth m cells, secrete renin; DCT-macula densa-narrow columnar, detect Na concentration of filtrate; Extraglomerular mesangial cells; Renin-angiotensin system
Renin-angiotensin system Macula densa monitors ion concentration and communicates with JG cells; JG cells release renin; Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I(inactive)
Seminiferous Tubules Spermatogenic cells (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids); Sertoli cells
Spermatogonia Type A-stem cells; Type B-differentiate into primary spermatocytes
Spermatocytes Divide by meiosis into spermatids
Spermatids Undergo spermiogenesis to form mature spermatozoa released into lumen of tubule
Sertoli Cells Rest on basal lamina; Extend width of tubule; join to form blood-testis barrier, creating basal compartment for spermatogonia and adluminal compartment for gamete development; Secretes androgen binding protein-increases local concentration of testosterone
Inhibin turns off FSH release
MIS During embryogenesis
Interstitial Tissue Loose CT; Leydig cells-steroid-secreting, stim by LH to secrete testosterone
Testicular Ducts Tubuli recti; Rete testis
Genital Ducts Efferent Ductules-10 to 20, conn rete testis to epididymis, alternating ciliated/non-ciliated cells move sperm to epididymis; Epididymis-single tube, PCCE with stereocilia; Vas deferens-thick, m. wall, joins with ducts from sem. vesicles to make
Genital Ducts continued ejaculatory duct, empties into prostatic urethra
Seminal Vesicles Paired glands, pseudostratified columnar, secretions-high in fructose-source of energy for sperm
Prostate Single midline structure containing 30 to 50 glands; Empties into prostatic urethra; Prostatic concretions increase with age; Secretion rich in lipids, proteolytic enzymes, acid phosphatase
Bulbourethral Glands AKA Cowper's glands; paired glands; empty into membranous urethra; secrete mucus
Penis Urethra; Erectile tissue-paired corpora cavernosa, corpus spongiosum surrounds urethra
Female reproductive system functions Produce female gamete; provide environment for development of embryo and fetus
Female reproductive system components Paired ovaries, paired oviducts (uterine tubes, Fallopian tubes); Uterus; Vagina
Ovary Structure Germinal epi-simple cuboidal covers ovary; Tunica Albuginea-poorly defined dense CT layer deep to germinal epi; Cortex-loose CT containing follicles
Primordial Follicles All follicles from birth to puberty; Primary oocyte surrounded by single layer of flattened follicular cells
Primary Follicle Activated by FSH; Single layer of cuboidal follicular cells
Growing Follicle Zona pellucida produced by oocyte and follicular cells; inner layer of follicular cells in contact with oocyte via gap junctions; Theca folliculi-modified stroma surrounding follicle-Theca Interna-inner, vascular; Theca Externa-Outer, fibrous
Antral Follicle Accumulation of liquor folliculi; Fluid secreted by follicular cells; Cumulus oophorus-hillock of follicular cells associated with oocyte
Graafian Follicle Secondary oocyte; Corona radiata-layer of follicular cells in contact with oocyte cross zona pellucida; Most mature follicle
Atretic Follicle Follicle and oocyte that die without completing development; May occure at any stage of follicular development
Corpus Luteum From follicular/thecal cells remaining after ovulation; temporary endocrine gland; granulosa lutein (lutein cells) from follicular cells; Theca lutein (paralutein cells) from theca interna
Corpus Luteum continued Persists about 10 days then regresses and forms corpus albicans; If pregnant, persists 5mos, maintained by HCG from placenta, progesterone, relaxin-decreases contractions, softens pubic symphysis
Fallopian tube function Receive oocyte; provide environment for fertilization and initial development; transport conceptus to uterus
Fallopian tube regions Infundibulum; Ampulla-2/3 of tube length; Isthmus-Medial 1/3; Intramural segment extends through wall of uterus
Fallopian tube layers Mucosa-longitudinal folds, simple columnar-ciliated-beat to uterus, secretory (non-ciliated)-fluid to protect ovum and promote sperm capacitation; Muscularis-inner circ, outer long, move ovum to uterus; Serosa-loose CT covered w/ mesothelium
Uterine structure and Layers Structure-body, cervix; Layers-endometrium-mucosa, myometrium-muscularis (thickest, hyperplastic and hypertrophic in pregnancy), perimetrium-serosa
Endometrium Simple columnar with simple tubular glands; Stratum basale-constant, source of cells for regeneration; Stratum functionalis-undergoes changes during uterine cycle
Stages of uterine cycle Menstrual; Proliferative; Secretory
Menstrual Phase Days 1 to 4, sloughing of stratum functionalis, cause by rapid decrease in estrogen and progesterone
Proliferative Phase Days 5 to 14, regeneration of glands and epithelium from stratum basale, regeneration of blood vessels (spiral aa.)
Secretory Phase Days 15 to 28, controlled by presence of progesterone, glands become highly coiled and secrete glycoproteins for nutrition upon implantation, endometrium at max thickness
Created by: lkeith