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U.S. 1860-1920

U.S. History A Vocab: Unit 1

Homestead Act Enacted in 1862; created to encourage people to move west; would give 160 acres of land to head of household if they woudl cultivate the land for five years
Bureau of Indian Affairs Founded in 1824; in charge of managing the land set aside for Native Americans
Assimilation When a minority group adopts beliefs and customs those of the dominant culture
Dawes Act Enacted in 1887; intended to "Americanize" Native Americans by redistributing land to individuals
Americanization Movement that was created to emerge Native Americansand immigrants into the American culture and turn them into "true Americans"
Grange Movement Patrons of Husbandry (1867) a farmer organization; a social outlet amd educational forum but became into people fighting agaisnt the Railroads
Populism Late 18th century and early 19th century movement where people wamted more say in the government and advance interests of laborers and farmers
Chinese Exclusion Act Enacted in 1892; prohibited all Chinese except merchants, students, teachers, tourists, and government officials from entering the US
Gentlemen's Ageement Agreement between Japan and US; Japan would limit Japanese immigration to US; 1907- 1908
Ellis Island Off the coast of New York (New York City); where many immigrants immigrated to US on East Coast
Angel Island Off the coast of California (San Francisco); where many immigrants immigrated to US on West Coast
Nativism When the interests of native-born people are favored over foreign-born people
Quotas A system where a number limit of immigrants from different countries is set for each year
George Pullman In 1880 he built a factoy with a town nearby for employees wih strict rules but good emenities
Thomas Edison Scientist who created first laboratory and many revolutionary inventions
Captain of Industry Being at the top with the most power in an industry; Rockefeller for oil amd Carnegie for steel; positive name
Robber Baron Industrialists who used ruthless tactics to become rich and powerful; negative name
Social Darwinism Base on Darwin's theory of evolution; explained why some poor and some rich; because of survival of the fitess; poor deserved to be poor
Andrew Carnegie Head of Carnegie Steel Company; donated millions and built librairies and a music hall
John D. Rockefeller Head of the Standard Oil Company; most powerful man in America
Philanthropy Giving away your fortune for the the good of others
Monopoly A complete control over an industry's production, wages, quality, and prices
Trust When people turned their stock over to a group of trustees (running seperate companies under one large coporation)
Sherman Anti-Trust Act Enacted in 1890; created to prevent monopolies by making it illegeal to make trusts that interferred wih free trade
Sweatshop Workshops that were in tenements rather than factories; tedious and requird few skills; employed many women and children
Muckraking A journalist that exposes the corrupt side of public lif and businesses in the early 1900's
Strikes in the 1800's- 1900's Workers striked for better working conditions; some succeded after many attempts
Mother Jones An Irish immigrant; Mary Harris Jones; became involved with US labor movement after recieving help from Knights of Labor; children's march of 1903
Collective bargaining A group negotiations to reach written agreements between workers and employers
Samuel Gompers Led the Cigar Makers' International Union to join with other craft unions in 1886; president of the American Ferderation of Labor (AFL) and used collective bargaining
Tenements Multi-family urban dwellings that were usually overcrowded and unsanitary
Jane Addams A community worker, champion of organized labor, peace advocate, antiwar activist, spokespeson for racial justice, advocate for quality-of-life issues; winner of Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
Settlement House A community center that provided assisstance to residents, especially immigrants of slums
Tammany Hall New York City's powerful Democratic political machine in 1868
Boss Tweed William M. Tweed; head of Tammany Hall 1869-1871; led Tweed Ring (group of corrupt politicians) in defrauding the city
Thomas Nast A political cartoonist; ridiculed Tweed in the "New York Time" and "Harper's Weekly"
Graft Using political influence for personal gain; illegeal
City Boss Controlled the political party's activities through out the city
Jacob Riis Came from Denmark to US in 1870 at 21; a police reporter in NYC who revealed the conditions of slums and hardships of poor; wrote "How the Other Half Lives"
Meat Inspection Act Enacted in 1906; created strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers amd a federal meat inspection program
Pure Food and Drug Act Enacted in 1906; stopped sale of contaiminated foods and drugs; assured truth in labeling
Referendum Procedure where a proposed legislative measure can be submitted to be voted by the people
Recall Procedure where a public official can be removed from office by a vote of the people
Initiative Procedure where a legislative measure can be originated by the people rather than law makers
Secret Ballot Procedure where people vote and their individual votes are secret to the general public
Conservation Planned management of natural resources; involves the protection of some wilderness areas and develops others for the common good
Created by: 16943870