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Accessory Glands SG

Accessory Glands

Parotid Gland 2 of them. Major salivary gland. Long duct that secretes saliva into oral cavity. Covered with a connective sheath. Consist of serous acini
Submandibular gland Long duct that sends saliva into oral cavity. mixed glands
Sublingual gland Within the oral cavity has a series of short ducts that secrete saliva into oral cavity. Mucous acini
Saliva contents Enzymes like amylase and lipase which initiates digestion of ingested carbs and lipids. IgA which attacks bacteria. Lactofernin: deprives bacteria of iron
Basket cells Form a basket around the acinar and they have contractability so they squeeze it out
Interculated ducts connecting to striated ducts Folding of basement membrane, and mitochondria which increases surface area for transport so as saliva passes through it can be reconstituted
Liver Endocrine Synthesizes and secretes blood proteins. Includes albumin, prothrombin, and fibrinogen and lipoproteins
Liver Exocrine Secretes bile, phospholipids and cholesterol are in bile, bile is ejected into common bile duct and travels to duodenum.
Space of Mall Place where tissue fluid can collect and lymph can form
Space of Disse Substances can travel from one capillary into the space where it encounters the membranes of the hepatocytes and transport can occur into hepatocyte and vice versa
Portal vein and central vein Portal vein carries majority of blood. Central vein carries blood back by hepatic vein
Kupffer cells Macrophages that live in the sinusoids of liver that eat aged erythrocytes
Lipoproteins Chylomicrons are lowest density. LDL= bad cholesterol. HDL=good cholesterol. HDL leaves the liver with no cargo and finds its way around the circulatory system and sops up cholesterol and delivers it back to liver
Cystic duct Reprocessed and concentrates bile so that the water and salt are removed and concentrated about 10 times
CCK After a meal CCK encounters the masculature of the gall bladder and forces the bile out through the cystic duct and common bile duct
Gallbladder epithelium Mucosa is highly folded which allows for distention of the wall. Columnar epithelium. No muscularis mucosa, no submucosa. Has muscularis externa only.
Gallbladder sodium transport Transported from the cytosol into intracellular space between adjacent epithelial cells.
Gallbladder neutrality maintainance Electric neutrality: Cl follows Na. Osmotic neutrality: Water follows salt into the space. There are occluding junctions so fluid cannot flow back into lumen
Endocrine Pancreas Islets of Langerhands: A=secrete glucagon, B=secrete insulin, D=secrete somastatin, F=secrete polypeptide
Insulin synthesis and secretion rER as preproinsulin-signal peptide cleaved in rER-proinsulin is transported to golgi-insulin and connecting peptide is stored in vesicle for release
Zymogen granules Things being converted into zymogen granules that are stored in the apical cytoplasm waiting for release signal. (Chyme from stomach)
Enterokinase In glycocalyx that can convert inacative trypsionogen to trysin which then converts all of the cells into active form so they can degrade the protein in the lumen of the gut
Secretin Secretin goes to interculated ducts release for copious of flow of alkaline juices that neutralizes acid of chyme
CCK Goes to gallbladder and causes contraction. Also goes to pancreas and acinar cells secrete enzymes in response
Branches of Vagal nerve Release acetylcholine in the vicinity of the acinar cells and they release enzymes in response
What triggers exocytosis of zymogen granules? Calcium. When CCK is there calcium rises and zymogen granules exocytos. IP3 can be release and cause release of stored calcium.



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