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Urinary System SG

Urinary System

QuestionAnswer
Kidney functions Regulatory organ for blood and interstitial fluid. Every 6 minutes blood goes through. Cortical 95%.
Gradient osmolarity Gradient of osmolarity is the driving force of how water is regulated. As you go deeper into the medulla there is very high osmolarity. Hyperosmolar gradient that goes towards the apex
Layers of kidney Outer surface is surrounded by 2 layers of fbibrous material/collagen/elastic. Under is myofibroblasts because it has actin filaments that serve a contractile function.
Renal Corpuscle Continuous fenestrated capillaries. Fused basal lamina. Type IV and XVIII collagen. Specialized capillaries called glumeruli. RC= bowmans' capsule + glomerular capillary
Mesangial cells Specialized smooth muscle that are phagocytic not from monocytic lineage. Keeps path from lumen of capillary to lumen of nephron clear
Nephron Summary The convoluted part is always found in the cortex. It comes down and forms the loop of henle. Ratio of length of DCT to PCT is 1:3. DCT joins collecting duct
Kidney functions Regulatory organ for blood and interstitial fluid. Every 6 minutes blood goes through. Cortical 95%.
Gradient osmolarity Gradient of osmolarity is the driving force of how water is regulated. As you go deeper into the medulla there is very high osmolarity. Hyperosmolar gradient that goes towards the apex
Layers of kidney Outer surface is surrounded by 2 layers of fbibrous material/collagen/elastic. Under is myofibroblasts because it has actin filaments that serve a contractile function.
Thin Descending Loop of Henle. Squamous cells, Permeable to H2O and ions
Renal Corpuscle Continuous fenestrated capillaries. Fused basal lamina. Type IV and XVIII collagen. Specialized capillaries called glumeruli. RC= bowmans' capsule + glomerular capillary
Mesangial cells Specialized smooth muscle that are phagocytic not from monocytic lineage. Keeps path from lumen of capillary to lumen of nephron clear
Nephron Summary The convoluted part is always found in the cortex. It comes down and forms the loop of henle. Ratio of length of DCT to PCT is 1:3. DCT joins collecting duct
Thick Ascending No transport of H2O, Na pumps out, lots of activity, K creates a + charge. Nucleus is apical
Proximal Convoluted Tubule Close to RC. 80% of convoluted is proximal. Absorption of H20, protein, ions. Single row columnar, brush border, 100% absorption of AA, glucose, proteins and peptides. Lots of mitochondria on basal side. Active Na pump channels. non-regulated aquaporin
Thick Descending Na goes out organic acid comes in
Thin Descending Loop of Henle. Squamous cells, Permeable to H2O and ions
Thin Ascending Loop of Henle. Impermeable to H2O, permeable to ions. Creates a hyperosmolarity
Thick Ascending No transport of H2O, Na pumps out, lots of activity, K creates a + charge. Nucleus is apical
Distal Tubule System No brush border, function is to adjust the ion composition and pH of the blood. Moves ions out and water can't leave so filtrate becomes hyposmolar. Aldosterone regulates Na/K ATPase transport. Connects to collecting ducts
Collecting Tubule Has regulated and unregulated aquaporin. Light cells: Aldosterone Regulated,Dark cells: adjust blood pH/secrete HCO3 or acid. Clear boundaries at level of LM. No brush border. Has aquaporint II regulated by ADH
Peritubular network Blood circulating in capillaries around convoluted tubule. Each nephron has own network. Cortical nephrons: shorter loops of henle and RCs are away from cortex/medulla boundary. Juxtamedullary nephrons: long loops of henle and RC located near medulla
Peritubular capillaries Sit under the basal membrane. Blood is going into RC then getting a filtrate and taking the material we want from filtrate and putting it back in the blood through peritubular capillaries
Macula Densa and JG cells When Na is low, macula densa signals JG cells to release renin which converts angiotensinogen to andiotensin I. Then ACE converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II: potent vasal constrictor/raises bp and triggers aldosterone from adrenal gland
JG cell location Sits in tunica media in afferent arteriole. JG apparatus: Macula Densa, Smooth muscle cells and Extraglomerular masengium cells. Stretch receptors cause the stop of release of renin as bp goes up
Masangium Cells Sit in glomerulus. Intraglomerular masangium are in the filtrate unit structure. Extraglomerular: play role in constriction of smooth muscle cells to affect the glomerular flow rate
Blood Flow and Glomerulus (Capillary System) Afferent arteriole and branches off into capillaries called glomerulus that leave through efferent arteriole. Tubular system surrounds the glomerulus forming Bowman's capsule that is going to lead into beginning of PCT
Bowmna's capsule Squamous: surrounds parietal layer. Podocyte: surrounds the glumeruli capillaries (visceral layer). Urinary space between the parietal and visceral layer.
Podocytes Epithelial cells that have interdigitating processes called pedicels (primary processes) that then branch off into little pedicels
Pedicels(space between are actin filaments) Surround the glomerular capillary to form a sheath. In between jacket over the capillaries is a special basal lamina which is acting as a filter allowing molecules smaller than 70kDa in. Overall blood rate flow can be regulated by pedicels
Ureter layers Star shaped lumen. Transitional epithelium, Inner longitudinal and outer circular, Adventitia-outermost CT. Fuciform vesicles are present in the transitional epithelium that give rise to increas in volume
True or False: Filtrate is hyposmotic to intertitium True