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Greece

QuestionAnswer
2 types of poetry epic and lyric
philadelphia in greek brotherly love
homer 700s bc; famous poet who composed odyssey and illiad, was blind; from greece
odysseus king of ithaca who had many adventures on his way home from the trojan war; general in war; came up with idea of trojan horse
aegean sea a sea between the eastern shore of greece and the western shore of asia minor; most of greece's islands are in it; important for trading, fishing, etc...; on eastern coast of mainland
trojan war war between greeks and trojans; lasted 10 years; started when helen, queen of sparta, was captured by paris
peloponnesus southern part of greece mainland; includes sparta
crete large island in southern part of aegean sea;1st greek civilization, minoans, lived there
king minos king under whom minoans rose
knossos principal city of crete
mycenae city in the peloponnesus which conquered the minoans and began mycenae; 1450-1100 bc
dark ages time in greek history between 1100-800 bc where there was no culture; no one knows the cause
city-states independent cities that were self-governing;started around 750-700 bc
democracy 1st democracy started in athens in 510 bc; athenians needed a new way of government with more rights; democracy is a system of government by the people known as citizens; 15 percent of athenians were citizens
monarchy a government ruled by a king or queen; used before dark age in athens
oligarchy a government where a group of people rule over a larger group
tyrant a leader who got power by force and ruled single-handedly
council of 500 a council of 500 citizens chosen randomly; proposed new laws at assembly; part of democracy in 510 bc; used to give everyone a voice
assembly used in democracy; where citizens met every 9 days to make laws
metic foreigners; came from other greek city-states or parts of mediterranean region; couldn't hold public office or vote
herodotus greek historian around 430 bc; wrote about being ruled by tyrants; world's 1st historian
barter athenians used this method of trading until 500 bc; it is trading one item directly for another; became inconvenient
coroebus a cook from elis who was the first recorded winner of the foortrace of the olympics in olympia in 776 bc
gods divine or immortal beings believed to have powers over people and nature; can influence lives in good or bad ways
myth a legendary story usually concerning gods or heroes, explaining why things are the way they are; teach moral lessons
sanctuary a sacred place honoring a god or goddess
delphi home to most famous sanctuary and delphic oracle
oracle messages, sometimes mysterious, giving advice, interpreted by a priest of priestess
tragedy a sad story where the hero is brought to fault by his/her own actions
comedy a humorous play with a happy ending
phidippides a greek runner who ran 280 miles to warn spartans about persian attack and asked for help; ran to marathon, said, nike, and died
marathon site of important battle between persia and athensin 490 bc; athens won battle
ephors 5 government leaders elected by spartan assembly who proposed laws with senators
helots state slaves assigned by spartan government to work the farms
helots state slaves assigned by spartan government to work the farms
darius father of xerxes; leader of the persians; defeated at battle of marathon
xerxes son of darius; victorious at battle of thermopylae; defeated at battle of salamis
darius father of xerxes; leader of the persians; defeated at battle of marathon
thermopylae 480 bc; greeks greatly outnumbered; fought in narrow path called hot gates; 300 spartans held off persians; persians won
xerxes son of darius; victorious at battle of thermopylae; defeated at battle of salamis
salamis final major battle between greeks and persians; greeks won by sinking one half of persian ships; 479 bc
thermopylae 480 bc; greeks greatly outnumbered; fought in narrow path called hot gates; 300 spartans held off persians; persians won
pericles 460-429 bc; military leader, general; intelligent and had great speaking skills; 3 goals- beautification, protection, democracy
salamis final major battle between greeks and persians; greeks won by sinking one half of persian ships; 479 bc
golden age 460-429 bc; led by pericles, seen as best of times; greece was center for art, literature, and ideas; greatest period of ancient athens during which it excelled in the arts, military, philosophy
pericles 460-429 bc; military leader, general; intelligent and had great speaking skills; 3 goals- beautification, protection, democracy
long walls strong protective stone walls surrounding athens; later expanded to port city piraeus
golden age 460-429 bc; led by pericles, seen as best of times; greece was center for art, literature, and ideas; greatest period of ancient athens during which it excelled in the arts, military, philosophy
acropolis a flat topped, fortified hill in the middle of athens; 200 feet above rest of city; temples, parthenon,
long walls strong protective stone walls surrounding athens; later expanded to port city piraeus
acropolis a flat topped, fortified hill in the middle of athens; 200 feet above rest of city; temples, parthenon, and buildings built on it
parthenon temple on acropolis; dedicated to athena; 60 feet high; built from marble; surrounded by 46 foot high columns; home to a gold and ivory statue of athena
"the school of greece" pericles' nickname for athens during golden age; means people should learn from athens
agora marketplace; a large, open square located near acropolis; lined by beautiful public buildings and temples
parthenon temple on acropolis; dedicated to athena; 60 feet high; built from marble; surrounded by 46 foot high columns; home to a gold and ivory statue of athena
"the school of greece" pericles' nickname for athens during golden age; means people should learn from athens
agora marketplace; a large, open square located near acropolis; lined by beautiful public buildings and temples
pasion talented slave who gained freedom; put in charge of masters bank; donated money to government; died in 370 bc
thucydides a greek historian who wrote about the plague in 430 bc
plague an very contagious epidermic disease that swept through athens; caused by bacteria; in 430 bc; inside athens walls; most victims died within a week; appeared throughout history; killed pericles
alliance an agreement between nations that joined for a common cause; main way they supported each other is by military and trade
peloponnesian league an alliance between sparta and her allies; they declared war against athens a year before the plague; during peloponnesian war
peloponnesian league an alliance between sparta and her allies; they declared war against athens a year before the plague; during peloponnesian war
delian league an alliance between athens and other city-states during peloponnesian war; formed to protect greece from further persian invasion; athens took over and turned it into an empire; forced city-states to pay taxes
xenophon a greek historian who wrote about the peloponnesian war around 400 bc; took place for thucydides after he died
philosopher a person who searches for the truth and the meaning of life; thinks things through; asks, what is justice? what is wisdom? what is goodness?
socrates a famous greek philosopher; father of greek philosophy; 1st greek philosopher; well-known teacher in athens; arrested for neglecting the worship of the gods and "corrupting the youth"; sentenced to death, had to drink hemlock; tried to ask every question
more socrates one of his students was plato; according to oracle he was the wisest man on the earth
"the unexamined life is not worth living" it is not worth living a life when you dont know anything and dont ask questions to try to figure things out; why go through life without corrections; quote of socrates; showed his curiosity of life
macedonia a large state just north of greece; ruled by king philip starting in 359 bc; after king philip died alexander took his place
king philip of macedon alexander's father; king of macedonia; took throne in 359 bc; military genius; murdered in 336 bc just before his first expedition to persia
alexander the great king philip's son; tamed the wild horse no one else could; was 20 when his father was murdered; took father's place in building an empire
bucephalus a wild horse; king philip's subjects were trying to tame him one day in 342 bc; no one could except for alexander
conquest victory by force over other peoples; alexander made a 20,000 mile journey of conquest; he had many conquests; alexander traveled all over the land conquering cities as he went
aristotle one of greeks greatest philosophers; king philip hired him to teach alexander about literature, philosophy, and science; later alexander would say that from his father he received a life, but from aristotle he learned how to lead a good life
hellenistic age hellenistic means greek like; it is the period of time from alexanders rule to 146 bc; art and culture at the timewas a mix of greek and eastern; during this time greece became teacher of western world in areas of science, art, literature, and philosophy
alexandria city in egypt named after alexander; became center of greek culture; home to the magnificent museum that had a huge impact on the ancient world and influenced future generations
advantages of monarchy no argument over laws; a good king could govern well; good military leaders; no fighting over laws
disadvantages of monarchy only one person with a voice; bad king could govern badly; succession; only one chance to get a good idea
succession when people fight over the thrown
advantages of oligarchy variety of ideas; more opinions and participation; more choices of representation; king heard other opinions while governing with oligarchy
disadvantages of oligarchy hard to reach agreement; oligarchs were only nobles not common men; economic breakdowns could cause poor to sell land and some farmers went into slavery
advantages of tyrany a good tyrant would stand up against bad oligarchies and help poor
disadvantages of tyrany a bad tyrant would abuse power; one you get power, power often corrupts; no plan for succession
advantages of democracy more representation; more good ideas; greater equality; poor are better represented
disadvantages of democracy only 15 percent of people participated in greece; only citizens could vote or hold office; not all educated votes
land of greece many mountains and islands; surrounded by bodies of water
geography of greece small, isolated communities or regions; neighboring towns were often enemise
farming grapes and olives grown on hills; many people were farmers; not much wheat was grown; aegean sea was used for transportation, trade, and fishing and it held almost all of greeces islands
minoan downfall conquered by mycenae
mycenae downfall no one knows
downfall of city-states started fighting because they didnt have enough farmland to support their people
put these in chronological order: city-states; mycenae; dark age; minoans minoans; mycenae; dark age; city-states
what did council of 500 do proposed laws and went to assembly
how do you become part of council of 500 citizens are randomly selected
direct democracy citizens represent themselves
representative democracy people represent others
Created by: kdowling1