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Cartilage and Bone

Cartilage and Bone Histology

this is one of the most important features of cartilage, which makes diffusion through the extracellular matrix very important avascularity
like all connective tissue, cartilage is made out of these three things... cells fibers, ground substance
cartilage cells are derived from these... chondrocytes
the major fiber of cartilage is this... type II collagen. it is essentially unique to cartilage but its fibers are too small to be visible
chondrocytes are completely surrounded by matrix and inhabit areas called... lacunae
chondrocytes in a lacunae can be single or in groups called... isogenous groups...cells in these groups will push away from each other as they produce new matrix and degrade old fibers
as we age, chondrocytes lose their ability to repair and maintain the extracellular matrix, resulting in... dehydration and calcification
cartilage contains this type of collagen type II
the ground substance of collagen is made up of these three GAG's: hyaluronon, chondroitin sulfate, and keratin sulfate
these form negatively charged aggregates that provide structural integrity while pulling a lot of water into the tissue. negatively charged chondroitin and keratin molecules are linked to a proteoglycan, which is in turn linked to a core of hyaluronon
this is "normal" cartilage type I cartilage
this forms elastic cartilage hyalin cartilage and elastic fibers
this forms fibrocartilage hyaline cartilage and type I collagen
hyaline cartilage is found in these areas epiphyseal plates, articular surfaces, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and nasal cartilages
chondrocytes are located in the lacunae as either single cells or recently divided isogenous groups. As the new chondrocytes produce ground substance they push apart from each other and create these distinct territories with different staining props capsular region, territorial matrix, interterritorial matrix
this is a dark basophilic region and is close to the cell and contains multiadhesive glycoproteins capsular region
this area surrounds each isogenous group or chondrocyte and stains less basophilic due to a large concentration of GAGs and proteoglycans territorial matrix
this is the region between each chondrocyte/isogenous group and is paler staining due to a greater proportion of type II collagen interterritorial matrix
hyaline cartilage is surrounded by this thin layer of dense irregular CT. it has an outer, fibrous layer filled with fibroblasts and type I collagen that contains the small blood vessels that supply the cartilage. perichondrium
the inner layer of perichondrium produces these, which then become chondrocytes once encased in lacunae chondrocytes
cartilage growth from teh perichondrium is known as this appositional growth
cartilage can also undergo this type of growth, by the division of chondrocytes to produce daughter cells in isogenous groups. this process is important in the process of long bone growth. interstitial growth
this type of cartilage is essentially the same as hyaline cartilage but also has a large amount of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix that make it more "rubbery" and mobile elastic cartilage
elastic cartilage is found in these places external ear, eustacean tube, epiglottis. unlike hyaline cartilage, it does not normally calcify with age
in this condition, trauma creates hematomas between the perichondrium and cartilage. since the blood vessels in the perichondrium are the only nutrition that the cartilage receives, the underlying cartilage dies and is replaced by dense IR CT. cauliflower ear/ Auricular hematoma
this type of cartilage is essentially a hybrid of dense irregular connective tissue and hyaline cartilage. chondrocytes are present in lacunae but there are also fibroblasts. fibrocartilage
is all of fibrocartilage vascular or avascular? avascular
distinguish between fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage fibrocartilage has much less matrix than hyaline cartilage, contains both types I and II collagen and has no perichondrium.
where is fibrocartilage found? annulus fibrosis of intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, menisci, tempomandibular joint disc, sternoclavicular joint disc, triangular ligament between carpus and ulna
these are structures of the knee made of fibrocartilage that stabilize and cushion the knee joint meniscus
why are the inner regions of menisci frequently removed if injured? becauese the thick outer region of menisci have blood vessels while the narrower inner regions do not.
in early bone development, this structure condenses in the body walland limbs to form loose model of bones mesenchyme
in flat bones, mesenchyme becomes bone via this process intramembranous ossification
this type of bone develops via endochondral ossification long bones
in this type of bone development, themesenchyme model is replaced by hyaline cartilage model which eventually becomes bone. endochondral ossification
endochondral ossification occurs via these structures primary and secondary centers of ossification
in this process, the outside cartilage ossifies to form a "bone collar" and shortly thereafter a vessel invades the bone and creates a cavity in the shaft/diaphysis. this region begins to ossify as cartilage matrix is replaced by bone. primary center of ossification
then the vessels invade ends of developing long bones (epiphysis) and repeat the same process as in primary centers of ossification, forming this... secondary center of ossification
hyaline cartilag eremains at the articular surfaces and between the epiphysis and diaphysis, forming this structure growth plate/ epiphyseal plate
these structures promote smooth movements betwee bones. they contain a colorless, viscous fluid that is rich in hyaluronic acid and proteins. it is surrounded by a two layered capsule synovial joint
the external layer of the joint capsule contains this... fibrous layer of dense CT that is continuous with the periosteum of nearby bone.
the internal (synovial layer) of the joint capsule contains this... it is lined by squamous to cuboid shaped cells on internal surface with no basal lamina (therefore it's a true epithelium)
these are cells in the internal (synovial) layer of the joint capsule that have a prominent rER, and secrete synovial fluid. synoviocytes
phagocytic cells in the synovial layer of the joint capsule that clear debris from the joint synovial macrophages
this disease presents as joint pain that becomes worse with activity and is relieved by rest. it can be idiopathic or secondary to a n injury or wear and tear. the articular cartilage thins and develops clefts osteoarthritis. normally there is little MMP activity in joint cartilage, but after an injury they and other inflammatory factors activate and prevent cartilage from fully regenerating. cartilage fragments of type II collagen are found in the synov fluid
one feature of long standing osteoarthritis is that the articular hyaline cartilage wears away, and the underlying bone is "polished" as it also gets worn away eburnation
this is a disease which has to do with an autoimmune reaction making antibodies to synovial tissue. the immune reaction causes synovial macrophages to release proinflammatory factors and MMP's. rheumatoid arthritis
rheumatoid arthritis is bilateral and involves multiple joints. pain from rheumatoid arthritis is relieved by.... activity. it gets worse when joints are not moving.
this structure produces new cartilage via interstitial groth that ossifies within the primary and secondary centers of ossificaiton. epiphyseal plates (growth plate)
what are the five different zones within each epiphyseal plate? zone of reserve cartilage, zone of proliferating cartilage, zone of hypertrophic cartilage, zone of calcified matrix, zone of resorption.
once the centers of ossification reach each other and obliterate the chondrocytes in this zone, the growth plate is closed and growth of bone ceases. zone of reserve cartilage.
in this zone, you can see chondrocytes in lacunae zone of reserve cartilage
in this zone you can see rows of isogenous groups zone of proliferating cartilage
in this zone you can see long rows of isogenous groups zone of hypertrophic cartilage
in this zone you can see calcium salts in the matrix zone of calified matrix
in this zone you can see cartilage in the bone cavity becoming ossified zone of resorption
in this disease, there is early closure of the growth plates achondroplasia
achondroplasia results in mutation of this receptor FGF
these are characteristics of patients with achondroplasia large head with midfacial hypoplasia and prominent forhead, short limbs, especially in proximal segments.
pseudoachondroplasia is a similar disease to achondroplasia, but results from this a mutation that kills chondrocytes, also causing premature closure of growth plates
this disease results from excess GH, which makes growth plates hypertrophy, resulting in extreme size giganticism
this disease is caused by excess GH after growth plates have already closed. the affective person just enlarges without actually growing taller Acromegaly
this hormone also can cause the growth plates to close, and explains why women tend to be shorter than men estrogen
pediatric fractures that involve epiphyseal plate are called...and can result in dysfunctional growth. Salter Harris fractures.
the arteries that create the primary and secondary centers of ossification carry these cells......, which enlarge to become...... osteoprogenitor cells, become osteoblasts.
these cells lay down extracellular matrix and become encased within their own lacunae, becoming osteocytes osteoblasts
this structure is made of immature bone and is stronger than the cartilage it replaced but it is brittle since it has no particular arrangement extracellular matrix of bone.
as osteoblasts become active, they start to release this...which is umineralized matrix. it contains a great deal of type I collagen witha smaller amount of proteoglycans and multiadhesive glycoproteins. osteoid
once osteoblasts are completely surrounded by matrix, they are called this... osteocytes
the bone matrix becomes mineralized as osteocytes concentrate this mineral by releasing alkaline phosphatase into the extracellular matrix. this increases the amount of phosphate ions in the area, drawing additional calcium. calcium
other osteocyte enzymes initiate crystallization of thos hydroxyapatite
in addition to structural function, hydroxyapetite crystals serve as this a reservoir for calfcium and phosphate. hormonal signals control the breakdown and deposition of the mineralized bone matrix
in this disease too little calcium or Vit D in the diet results in poorly mineralized bone, which cannot accomodate as much force and the lower limb bones warp under a person's body weight. in children it's called rickets, in adults it's called osteomalacia
why is Vitamin D important for bone? it is needed to absorb calcium in the small intestine
osteocytes seem isolated within their individual lacunae but are actually connected with neighboring osteocytes by slender cytoplasmic processes that form.... gap junctions
despite being encased in matrix, osteocytes are able to respond to mechanical stress on bones. ........are well defined lacunae with little osteod and ......are osteoid notable in lacunar spaces quiescent osteocytes, and active osteocytes
osteocytes can also break down their surrounding mineralized matrix significantly by releasing these MMP's and lysozymes tha tendocytose degraded matrix material. this process is called osteocytic osteolysis
these cells are responsible for removing bone in large quantities osteoclasts
thse cells are large, acisophilic, multinucleated, and have a brushy surface that is in contact with bone. they are derived from the same stem cell population as monocytes and macrophages. they fuse and endocytose large extracellular debris. osteoclasts
osteoclasts seal off a region of bone directly underneath them, which is called a........., where bone will be removed resorption bay (Howships lacuna)
this is an area that appears similar to microvilli, with a large nuber o fcytoplasmic extensions that increases the surface area of the cell. it has to do with oteoclast activity ruffled border
this area is around the periphery of the cell and is contains circular actin filaments that seals the resorptive bay from the extracellular space clear zone
why is sealing off the resorptive bay by osteoclasts so important? because it then proceeds to lower the pH to 4-5 by pumping hydrogen ions into the bay. the lower pH env. dissolves the hydroxyapatite crystals into calcium and phosphate ions while MMps and other enzymes break up collagen and proteins.
this hormone is part of controlling blood calcium. it is release when blood calcium is low and increases osteoclast activity, osteocyte ostoelysis, and calcium absorption in small intestines PTH
this hormone has to do with controlling blood Ca levels and is released by cell sin the thyroid gland in response to high calcium. it inhibits bone resorption by osteocytes and osteoclasts. calcitonin
in this disease, the decrease in estrogen of post menopausal women removes the inhibition from osteoclasts, resulting in a net decrease in bone density as osteoclast activity out paces osteoblast activity osteoporosis
this is also known as woven bone disease, and is caused by nonfuncitonal osteoclasts. compact bone cannot be made and all bone in the body remains immature. it is thick but structurally brittle osteopetrosis
this type of bone is dense, and is the outer layer that surrounds spongy bone. it is located immediatley deep to the periosteum. compact bone
this typ eo fbone forms a trabecular mesh in the interior of the bone. the open region in spongy bone holds marrow-fat and hematopoietic cells. spongy bone
intitially, osteocytes lay down minerals on nearby collagen without much other organization, and this is called... woven bone
strong compact bone forms via this... as waves of osteoclasts tunnel through bone and osteoblasts follow in their wake. the osteoblasts begin producing osteoid and gradually encase themselves in a ring
subsequent waves of osteoblasts repeat the same proces suntil multiple rings of mineralized matrix, each containing multiple rings of osteocytes, fill in the tunnel, leaving a small hole in the center for... vessels and nerves. this resulting architecture of compact bone is stronger than woven bone.
within compact bone, portions of older osteons that have been partially destroyed by cutting cones are also visible and are called... interstitial lamellae
this disease occurs when there are mutation sin the enzymes that allow osteoclasts to function. as a result, internal remodeling of bone dies not occur and the bones are made up of thick but brittle woven bone. osteopetrosis
building blocks of bone osteon.
the osteocytes encased in each osteon communicate with their neighbors via processes that extend through tiny structures called....and end in gap junctions canaliculi
compact bone is a netowrk of osteons connected to each other by their blood supply running through this structure haversian canals and volkman's canals. the blood supply that travels through these tunnels keeps the osteocytes viable. disruption of the blood results in avascular necrosis of bone.
sharpey's fibers are direct connections between type I collagen fibers within the bone and type I collagen fibers taht surround the bone, called... periosteum
the inner layer of periosteum contains these cells that can become osteoblasts osteoprotenitor cells
during bone fracture, these cells begin removing blood and bony debris neutrophils and macrophages.
during bone fracture, these cells grow into the area to form loose CT that attempts to rejoin the fragments. it is quickly replaced by a callus of hyaline cartilage capillaries and fibroblasts
during bone fracture, these cells differentiate into osteoblasts that form a bone collar around the callus periosteal cells
during bone fracture, these cells invade cartilage to create a callus of immature bone osteogenic buds
remodeling of bone replaces immature bone with this and bone remodeling is completed within six to twelve weeks lamellar bone
Created by: aferdo01



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