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100 U.S. Facts

100 U.S. History Facts

First permanent English settlement in U.S. Jamestown
Year of the first permanent English settlement in the U.S. 1607
Date of the signing of the Declartion of Independence July 4, 1776
Year the U.S. Constitution was written 1787
President Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in what year 1803
Years of the Civil War 1861-1865
The first shots of the American Revolution were fired here Lexington
Site of the first battle of the American Revoltion Conord, Massachusetts
The turning point of the American Revolution Battle of Saratoga
Location of the British defeat by George Washington's troops which signaled the end of the American Revolution Yorktown, Virginia
Fort Sumter First shots of the Civil War where fired her in South Carolina
Battle of Gettysburg turning point in the civil war for the north where confederate troops were forced to retreat adn ever invaded the north again
Capture of Vicksburg Mississippi effectively split the Confederacy in two and gave control of the Mississippi River to the Union
Appomattox Court House small town in Virginia where Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate Army to Ulysses S. Grant ending the Civil War
Mercantilism is an economic theory that a country's strength is measured by the amount of gold is has, that a country should sell more than it buys and that the colonies exist for the benefit of the Mother Country
Abolitionist person who wanted to end slavery in the United States
Tariff tax on goods brought into a country
Protective Tariff a tax placed on goods from another country to protect the home industry
Manifest Destiny belief that the United States should own all of the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Temperance Movement was a campaign against the sale or drinking of alcohol
Representative Government is a system of government in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them
Republic is a nation in which voters choose representatives to govern them
House of Burgesses was the first representative assembly in the new world
Three Branches of Govnerment Legislative, Executive, Judical
Checks and Balances a system set up by the Constitution in which each branch of the federal government has the power to check, or control, the actions of the other branches
Free Enterprise the freedom of private businesses to operate competively for the profit with minimal government regulation
Federalism the sharing of power between the states and the national government
Separation of Powers a system in which each branch of government has it's own powers
Popular Sovereignty refers to a democratic system of government in which the people hold supreme power
Amend means to change
Unalienable Rights rights that cannot be given up, taken away or transferred. Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness
Tyranny cruel and unjust government
Democracy form of government that is run for and by the people, giving people the supreme power
Ratify means to approve by vote
Judicial Review the right of the Supreme Court to judge laws passed by Congress and determine whether they are constitutional or not
Civil Disobedience the refusal to obey a government law or laws as a means of passive resistance because of one's moral conviction or belief
Federalists these were supporters of the Constitution who favored a strong national government
Antifederalists were people opposed to the Constitution, preferring more power to be given to the state governments than to the national government
Nullification the idea of a state declaring a federal law illegal
Primary Sources the original records of an event. They include eyewitness reports, records created at the time of an event, speeches, and letters by people involved in the event, photographs and artifacts
Secondary Sources the later writings and interpretations of historians and writers. Often secondary sources, like textbooks and articles, provide summaries of information found in primary sources
Republicanism was an attitude toward society in the late 1700's based on teh belief that the good virtue and morality of the people was essential to sustain the republican form of government
Industrial Revolution the era in which a change from houshold industries to factory production using powered machinery took place
Magna Carta signed in 1215 by King John, was the first document that limited the power of the King
English Bill of Rights protected the rights of English citizens and became the basis for the American Bill of Rights
Declaration of Independence document written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the colonies independence from England
Articles of Confederation first American Constitution. It was a very weak document that limited the power of the Congress by giving states the final authority over all decisions
Constitution of the United States set out the laws and principles of the government of the United States
George Washington's Farwell Address advised the United States to stay "neutral in its relations with other nations" to avoid "entangling alliances"
Monroe Doctrine foreign policy statement by President James Monroe stating that 1) the U.S. would not interfere in European affairs, and 2) that the western hemisphere was closed to colonization and/ or interference by European nations
Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the French and Indian War and effectively kicked the French out of North America
Treaty of Paris 1783 ended the American Revolution and forced Britian to recognize the United States as an independent nation
Northwest Ordinance a policy of establishing the principles and procedures for the orderly expansion of the United States
Mayflower Compact an agreement signed in 1620 by the Pilgrims in Plymouth, to consult each other about laws for the colony and a promise to work together to make it succeed
Federalist Papers a series of essays written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton, defending the Constitution and the principles on which the government of teh United States was founded
Common Sense a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to convince colonists that it was time to become independent from Britian
Bill of Rights first ten amendments to the Constitution and detail the protection of individual liberties
Gettysburg Address short speech given by Abraham Lincoln to dedicate a cemetary for soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg. It is considered to be a profound statement of American ideals
Emancipation Proclamation Abraham Lincoln issued this on January 1, 1863, setting all slaves in the Confederate states free
Lincoln's First Inaugural Address stated that, "no state...can lawfully get out of the Union," but pledged there would be no war unless the South started it
Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address was meant to help and restore the country after four year of Civil War
Great Compromise created two houses of Congress. One based on population, the other gave equal representation to each state
Sam Adams was a member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence
Ben Franklin was an inventor, statesman, diplomat, signer of the Declaration of Indpendence and delegate to Constitutional Convention
King George III was the King of England who disbanded the colonial legislatures, taxed the colonies, and refused the Olive Branch Petition leading to the final break with the colonies
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, became the 3rd President of the United States and purchased the Louisiana territory, doubling the size of the United States
Thomas Paine wrote pamphlets like Common Sense and The Crisis to encourage American independence and resolve
George Washington was the leader of the Continental Army who became the first President of the United States
Andrew Jackson was the leader of the original demorcatic party and a "president of the people." He was responsible for the Trail of Tears, which forced Native Americans west of the Mississippi River
John C. Calhoun was a South Carolina Congressman and Senator who spoke for the South before and during the Civil War
Henry Clay powerful Kentucky Congressman and Senator who proposed the American System and the Compromise of 1850
Daniel Webster a Massachusetts Congressman and Senator who spoke for the North and the preservation of the Union
Jefferson Davis the President of the Confederacy during the Civil War
Ulysses S. Grant General of the Union Army and was responsible for winning the Civil War for the North
Robert E. Lee was teh General for the Confederate Army
Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the United States who successfully put the Union back together only to be assassinated 5 days after the Civil War ended
Alexander Hamilton leader of the Federalists, first Treasurer of the United States, creator of the Bank of the U.S. and killed in a duel by the Vice President of the United States, Aaron Burr
Patrick Henry passionate patriot who became famous for his fiery speeches in favor of American independence. His most famous quote included the words, "Give me liberty or give me death"
James Madison is considered the "Father of the Constitution"
Frederick Douglass former slave who became the best-known black abolistionist in the country
James Monroe author of the Monroe Doctrine, which shut down the western hemisphere to European expansion or interference
Harriet Tubman an escaped slave who became a Conductor of the Underground Railroad and helped over 300 slaves to freedom in the North
Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention creating the Women's Rights Movement in the United States
1st Amendment states that "Congress shall make no law" restricting freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition
2nd Amendment guarantees the right of states to organize militias, or armies, and the right of individuals to bear arms
3rd Amendment forbids the government to order private citizens to allow soldiers to live in their homes
4th Amendment requires that warrants be issued if property is to be searched or seized (taken) by the government
5th Amendment protects an accused person from having to testify against him or herself (self-incrimination); bans double jeopardy, and guarantees that no person will suffer the loss of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
6th Amendment guarantees the right to a speedy trial by an impartial jury; the right to a lawyer; the right to cross examine witnesses; and the right to force witnesses at a trail to testify
7th Amendment guarantees the right to a jury trial in civil suits
8th Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail or fines
9th Amendment states that the people have rights other than those specifically mentioned in the Constitution
10 Amendment states that powers not given to the federal government belong to the states
13th Amendment abolished slavery
14th Amendment guarantees citizenship and rights to all people born or naturalized in the United States
15 Amendment guarantees the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race
Marbury v. Madison was the 1803 Court decision that gave the Supreme Court the right to determine whether a law violates the Constitution. It set up the principal of judicial review
Dred Scott v. Sanford was the Supreme Court decision that said slaves were property and not citizens
Cotton Gin an invention by Eli Whitney that speeded the cleaning of cotton fibers and in effect, increased the need for slaves
Steamboat Robert Fulton revolutionized the transportation system and trade in the United States with this
Marquis de Lafayette 19 year old French nobleman who volunteered to serve in Washington's Army. Called the "soldiers friend" he used his own money to buy warm clothing for his ragged troops.
3/5 Compromise the Constitutional Convention's agreement to count three-fifths of the state's slaves as population for purposes of representation and taxation
Virginia Plan Plan proposed by Edmund Randolph that proposed a government with three branches and a two house legislature in which representation would be based on a state's population or wealth
New Jersey Plan a plan of government proposed at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 that called for a one-house legislature in which each state would have one vote.
Dorthy Dix helped fight for the cause of the mentally ill
Horace Mann committed himself to a life of bettering humanity. President of Antioch College where he committed himself to education for both women and men and equal right for African Americans
Grimke Sisters Two sistes who were daugters of a slave holding family. They spoke publically against slavery when women were not allowed to speak in public
Economic Reasons for Colonization European investors hoped to make huge profits; colonists came to obtain their own land and opportunity
Political Reasons for Colonization England's Rulers wanted wealth and power
Religious Reasons for Colonization Many groups founded colonies to freely practice their religion: Pilgrims, Pruitans, Catholics, Quakers
Limited Government the principle that requires all U.S. citizens , including government leaders, to obey the law
Individual Rights a personal liberty and privilege guaranteed to U.S. citizens by the Bill of Rights
Proclamation of 1763 an order in which Britian prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
Crispus Attucks African American who was the first to die at the Boston Massacre
Committees of Correspondence group of people in the colonies who exchanged letters on colonial affairs
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation No power to tax, No amry, No national executive, no court system, all 13 states had to agree to amend
Strengths of the Articles of Confederation kept nation united during revolution, passed the Northwest Ordinance
John Paul Jones founder of the U.S. Navy "I have not yet begun to fight"
John Marshall He was the one who ruled in the Marbury v Madison trial that the federal courts had the power to determine whether or not congressional legislation was constitutional (judicial review)
William Penn established the colony of Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers