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BIOCHEM Princeton

Glycolysis Stoichiometry Glucose, 2ADP, 2Pi, 2NAD -> 2(Pyruvate,NADH,H20,H,ATP)
Committed Step in Glycolysis (enzyme and reactant/product) Why? PhosphofructoseKinase(PFK) F6P -> F1,6bis-P Why? deltaG << 0 so it's pracically irreversible
Total ATP produced in glycolysis 4ATP (2 are USED to produce 2 ADP)
Total ADP used in Glycolysis? 4 ADP (Produce 4 ATP, used 2 to make 2 ADP)
Which Steps are regulated in a Biochemical Pathway? How are they regulated? Where do they tend to be in the pathway? Committed steps, the one's that have a deltaG << 0 They are generally subject to allosteric regulation and early on in the pathway (saves energy)
Pyruvate Fermentation product(s) in humans, in yeast Humans: NAD+, Lactate -- Yeast: NAD+, CO2, Ethanol in order to have NAD for Glycolysis
Pyruvate Dehydroxylase Complex Stoichiometry PYR + NAD + CoA -> Acetyl-CoA + NADH + H + CO2
How will PDC be regulated if there's an abundance of AMP or ADP? Upregulated to increase the amount of ATP, balancing the ratio of ATP or ADP/AMP
KREB CYCLE Stoichiometry PER Pyruvate Oxaloacetate + Acetyl-CoA +3NAD + FAD + GDP -> 2CO2 + 3NADH +GTP + FADH2 (Completely oxidize Acetyl-CoA to CO2)
Where does the acetyl-CoA come from in KREBs PDC
OAA + Acetyl CoA + ____ -> citrate + H H2O
Cirtrat -> Succinyl- Coa (what are all the products and reactants excluding these?) *make sure you have the correct quantity of each 2NAD -> 2CO2 and 2NADH
Succinyl-CoA -> OAA (what are all the products and reactants excluding these?) *make sure you have the correct quantity of each GDP + Pi +NAD + FAD -> GTP + NADH + FADH2
Products per GLUCOSE Oxidation : glycolysis, PDC, TCA G: 2ATP + NADH PDC: 2NADH (per glucose, not pyruvate) TCA: 6NADH, 2GTP, 2FADH2
Most of the energy received from Glucose is ATP or Electron carriers? NADH and FADH2
Draw picture of glucose oxidation steps 1-3 and how they connect pg 42
Where are PDC, TCA, ETC/OP occur? (where are the enzymes) PDC and TCA:Matrix ETC/OP and ATP Synthase:innermembrane
Goal of ETC/OP Reoxidize all reduced electron carriers from glycolysis, PDC, and TCA and store in the form of ATP
During glucose metabolism, how many electron carriers need to be transported to the correct place in the cell? 2 NADH from glycolysis because they are produced in the CYTOPLASM as opposed to PDC and TCA which was made in the matrix (correct place to be)
Which membrane of the mitochondria is permeable? outer, inner is hella not permeable to maintain proton gradient, but can be if the right stuff needs to pass like NADH from glycolysis.
How do Prokaryotes Oxidatively Phosphorylate? Is this advantageous? since they don't compartmentalize their organelles, it occurs through their cell membrane. Yes, don't have to use energy to shuttle cytosolic NADH into matrix.
What is Oxidative Phosphorylation? Oxidizing high energy electrontransporters like NADH and FADH2 (favorable) creates a gradient. gradient is coupled with the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP (unfavorable)
Name and determine function of parts of ETC A: NADH reductase Q: Ubiquinone (oxidize FAD) B: Cytochrome C reductase C: Cytochrome C oxidase (reduces the Oxygen, which receives the electron) only A,B and C pumps hydrogen
Where are protons being pumped to during ETC? matrix or cytoplasm? cytoplasm
Where is pH higher, matrix or cytoplasm? why? matrix, because protons are pumped out into cytoplasm to make the proton gradient
Dinitrophenol is an uncoupler: it destroys proton gradient. which process does it affect first? TCA, ETC, Muscle Contraction, or Electron transport? Muscle contraction, all the other ones can continue without proton gradient. ATP syn won't function though
How many Protons are pumped with NADH? FADH2? NADH:10 FADH2:6 (because FADH bypasses the first enzyme, A)
How many protons are needed to produce 1 ATP? 4 protons
How much ATP does a cytoplasm NADH yield? How about prokaryotes? 1.5 ATP because the glycerol phosphate shuttle brings it to ubiquinone like FADH2, bypassing enzyme A Prokaryotes don't have a compartment membrane so they yield the full 2.5
What does the glycerol Phosphate shuttle do? shuttles NADH from cytoplasm to mitochondrial matrix
Glycogenolysis. what is it and when does it happen? what do you call it when you make glycogen? Breakdown of glycogen (polymer of glucose), happens when blood sugar is low. Glycogenesis
Gluconeogenesis. What is it? When and where does it occur? Happens when glucose is low, happens mainly in the liver. converts glucose precursors like lactate, pyruvate, kreb intermediates and carbon skeletons of amino acids. turns them into OAA and then glucose
Beta Oxidation. what is it and what does it produce? Removes 2 Carbons at a time from Triglycerides in hepatocytes. each 2 carbs produces 1 NADH, 1 FADH2, and a Acetyl-CoA*
Amino acids can be used in glucose catabolism. What exactly can they make? Pyruvate and Acetyl-CoaA, just like Fat
What 4 ways can enzymes be controlled? Association, covalent modification, proteolytic cleavage, or allosteric regulation
Enzyme Competitive inhibitors effect (Vmax, Km, and/or V/2) Km, makes the substrate less effective because they're being blocked
non competitive inhibitors effect (Vmax, Km, and/or V/2) Vmax and V/2, doesn't effect sensitivity, just prevents from binding
Cooperativity When one substrate addition to a complex of enzymes increases affinity for the whole unit. such as hemoglobin
Adding phosphorus to an enzyme is what kind of modification? covalent
Created by: nqbui