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Meso Super FC Exam I

Colossal head #1<br>Early Formative<br>1200-900 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Basalt<br>San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán Helmet associated with rulership/ballgame/heredity<p>Colossal nature/prominence in local shows its significance in culture<p>Drilling holes - destroying images of previous rulers?<p> <img src=""/>
Hero Twins<br>Early Formative<br>1100-800 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Basalt<br>El Azuzul Might have been used in rain ceremonies – crinkled paper headdress<p>Cleft in were-jaguar figure; sign in Olmec cosmology - Found in situ, facing E, close to water<p>Headress figures forerunners to the Popul Vuh Mayan hero twins<p> <img src=""/>
Figures from El Manati'<br>Early Formative/Macayal phase<br>1040 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Ceiba wood<br>at the foot of Cerro Manatí 37 wooden busts/sculptures<p>Arch record + no decay; ritually buried/wrapped in mats<p>Found near a "cenote" - limestone sinkhole<p> <img src=""/>
Mosaic pavement<br>Middle Formative<br>900-400 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Serpentine<br>La Venta Has cleft like the dragon figure in Azuzul (were-jaguar) - face with tassels/etc. below<p>Ritualistically buried under clay and slabs of imported rock<p>15-20 feet (run), 500 blocks<p> <img src=""/>
Colossal head #1<br>Middle Formative<br>900-400 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Basalt<br>La Venta Stone carried from over 80 Kilometers away (Cerro Cintepec)<p>Found outside near tombs in Complex A in situ "intentionally left in original location)<p>9'4" tall and weighed several tons<p> <img src=""/>
Altar 4<br>Middle Formative<br>900-400 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Basalt<br>La Venta Multiplicity - aspect of human figure inside a creature<p>Might have been throne for ceremonial purposes<p>Figure sits inside cave or mouth of fantastical creature Ancestors or captives and rope <p> <img src=""/>
Monument 19<br>Middle Formative<br>900-400 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Basalt<br>La Venta Earliest representation of a feathered serpent in Mesoamerica<p>Feathered serpent later to become Aztec Quetzalcoatl<p>Depicts a priest/shaman engulfed in an animal - IDed by his purse<p> <img src=""/>
Offering 4<br>Middle Formative<br>900-400 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Basalt/serpentine/jade<br>La Venta Found in situ (in original context)<p>Uncovered 100 years after to inspect it, then buried again<p>Reproducing a historical event? Recreating a ceremony?<p>15 figures and 6 celts <img src=""/><img src=""/>
Kunz axe<br>Middle Formative<br>900-300 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Jade<br>hilly region of Oaxaca Green - connection to fertility, earth, and renewal<p>Shaped like a were-jaguar (Olmec cosmology)<p>Handle used in ceremonies (precious stone)<p> <img src=""/>
The "baby" figurine<br>Early/Middle Formative<br>900-300 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Ceramic (kaolin)<br>Las Bocas 34 cm high<p>Rocker motif on back; found shattered<p>We assume it's a baby b/c sucking its thumb<p> <img src=""/>
El Rey Petroglyph 1<br>Middle Formative<br>800-300 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Basalt<br>Chalcatzingo “El Rey” is believed to be “La Reina”<p>Sitting in cave with x-ray view<p>Schematic depictions of rain and wind (phallic)<p> <img src=""/>
Olmec Lord<br>Early/Middle Formative<br>900-300 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Wall painting<br>Oxtotitlan 3.8 m x 2.5 m, 10 m over entrance<p>Bird's eye possibly inlaid with precious material; nose plug<p>X-ray view – figure inside sitting on altar?<p> <img src=""/>
Youth with Rain, Monument 1<br>Middle Formative<br>800-300 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Greenstone<br>Las Limas, Veracruz Discovered – thought to be Madonna and child<p>Incisions --tattooing OR evidence of ritual body painting?<p>Rain god figure = were-jaguar like Kunz axe, paper headdress like in Twins<p> <img src=""/>
Lord, Stela 1<br>Late Formative<br>2nd cent CE<br>Epi-Olmec<br>Limestone<br>La Mojarra Discovered in 1986 pulled from the Acula River<p>“The Principle Bird Deity” in composite view (front/profile)<p>One of Mesoamerica's earliest known written records, 535 glyphs<p> <img src=""/>
Jaw and Teeth Necklace from Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent<br>Early Classic??<br>2nd cent CE<br>Teotihuacano<br>Jaw/teeth<br>Teotihuacan Warriors were buried with them—trophies of war? Ritual sacrafice?<p>Lower class warriors wore fake necklaces of shell etc.<p>Sacrifices done to keep gods happy? Droughts, exhaustion of resources (use of limestone)<p>From Temple of the Feathered Serpent <img src=""/>
Mask mosaic<br>Early Classic??<br>2nd cent CE<br>Teotihuacano<br>Shell, obsidian, malachite<br>Teotihuacan Glyph on forehead--”flowing water”?<p>Drill holes for earrings<p>Built in 2 phases over time—authenticity was long disputed<p>Teo is known for mosaic masks <img src=""/>
Reconstruction - Mural Painting of a Deity Flanked by Two Attendants from Tetitlan<br>Early Classic??<br>2nd cent CE<br>Teotihuacano<br>Plaster and stucco<br>Teotihuacan World Tree growing from her head/headdress (ceiba)<p>Great Goddess of Teotihuacan/ Spider Woman--Tepantitla Patio<p>Goddess is shown frontally – Teo style<p>Assoc with water, fertility, earth, creation <img src=""/>
Temple of the Moon<br>Early Classic<br>150 CE<br>Teotihuacano<br>Architecture<br>Teotihuacan Cerro Gordo behind; has cleft like were-jaguar (important to them!)<p>Covers a pre-existing structure from before 200 CE<p>Temple on top of perishable materials to Great Goddess<p>Built in 6 phases; Called “Tenan” in Nahuatl = “mother or rock protector” <img src=""/>
Great Goddess<br>Early Classic<br>150 CE<br>Teotihuacano<br>Basalt<br>Teotihuacan Largest freestanding sculpture found at Teotihuacan<p>Figure wrings water from her "huipil"/poncho<p>Precursor to Aztec goddess Chalchiuhtlicue<p>Chalchiuhtlicue AKA "she who wears a jade skirt" Block like but still 3D - not Olmec - basic carving <img src=""/>
Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent and the Adosada platform<br>Early Classic<br>200 CE<br>Teotihuacano<br>Architecture<br>Teotihuacan Talud-tablero (sloping-vertical) built in 2 phases<p>Representations of gods Tlaloc and Feathered Serpent<p>More the 200 dead bodies found—ritual?<p>260 painted serpent head tenons <img src=""/>
Temple of the Sun<br>Early Classic<br>225 CE<br>Teotihuacano<br>Architecture<br>Teotihuacan 61 m, built in 2 phases<p>1971 sound and light system and disc new cave<p>One of largest structures in Precolomb Mesoamerica<p>Staircase opens/closes<p>Over multi-chambered cave = portals to the underworld for Maya; "place of emergence" for Mesoamericans <img src=""/>
North Face of the Temple of Masks, E VII-B<br>Early Classic<br>250-550 CE<br>Maya<br>Architecture<br>Uaxactun Traidic E group lines up with astronomical phenomenon<p>Might have been used as an astronomical observatory<p>Stucco sculptures – jaguar, turtles, eagles, parrots<p>Site name is play off of "Washington," who paid for the excavation <img src=""/><img src=""/>
Leiden Plaque celt<br>Early Classic<br>320 CE September 17<br>Maya<br>Jade<br>Linked to Tikal Long count date<p>Celt, probably used on belt (portable stela)<p>Records the ascension of “Moon Zero Bird”<p>Holds double headed snake staff as sign of rank <img src=""/>
Stela 4, Curl Nose (Yax Nuun Aylin)<br>Early Classic Maya<br>380 CE<br>Maya<br>Boulder<br>Tikal Helmet of feathered serpent = Teo<p>Propoganda carved quickly<p>Seated figure seen frontally like Great Goddess painting in Teo<p> <img src=""/>
Reconstruction of Tumba 104<br>Early Classic<br>400 CE<br>Zapotec/Mixtec<br>Painting and sculpture<br>Monte Alban IIIa Presence of pottery places individual in a higher class<p>Niches with ritual offerings<p>Tomb was opened in 1937<p>Painted in haste-> paint drips <img src=""/>
Portrait of the deceased over jaguar<br>Early Classic<br>400 CE<br>Zapotec/Mixtec<br>Ceramic<br>Monte Alban IIIa, Oaxaca Urn outside of Tomb 104; stylized, painted figures, ceramic sculptures stuck on outside<p>Cocijo rain/maize god headdress<p>Said to be on a jaguar<p> <img src=""/>
Stela 32, Stormy Sky<br>Early Classic<br>445 CE<br>Maya<br>Limestone<br>Tikal Jaguar god of underworld under L arm<p>Glyph with text IDs warrior in Teo garb<p>One of the most complex inventories of "political paraphenalia" of any Mayan monument<p> <img src=""/>
Palenque Palace<br>Late Classic<br>600 CE<br>Maya<br>Architecture (Limestone???)<br>Palenque Aztecs called Palenque "water mountain"<p>Architecture of the interior and corbel vaults<p>Tower (defense/star gazing?) part of the final phase of construction<p> <img src=""/>
Captives from the East Court of palace<br>Late Classic<br>600 CE<br>Maya<br>Limestone<br>Palenque Figure on right has a scarred penis<p>Glyphs and headdresses<p>Composite views (mixed) frontal body =Teo, profile heads = Maya<p> <img src=""/>
North Ballcourt looking east<br>Classic<br>600-1200 CE<br>Totonac?<br>Flagstones<br>El Taji'n 6 carved panels with ritual scenes and ornamental frieze<p>87 ft/27 m long (small) 3 layers<p>Vertical instead of sloping walls<p> <img src=""/>
Beheading on South Ball Court panel<br>Classic<br>600-1200 CE<br>Totonac?<br>Limestone/stone<br>El Taji'n Carved in situ (on site)<p>Players of the ball game depicted, weaing “yugos” and “palmas”<p>Ball game recreates creation myth (Hero Twins)<p> <img src=""/>
Temple of the Inscriptions<br>Late Classic<br>675 CE Started<br>Maya<br>Architecture<br>Palenque Nine level temple, associated with the underworld<p>Designed for eternity – psychoduct (ventilation)<p>Discovered by Alberto Ruz<p> <img src=""/>
Lid from Temple of the Inscriptions (Sarcoph)<br>Late Classic<br>683 CE<br>Maya<br>Limestone<br>Palenque Pakal is ascending world tree – Conquistadors thought it a cross<p>Died March 31, 683, aged 80<p>Discovered 13 corbel vaults down from entry<p> <img src=""/>
Tikal Temple II<br>Late Classic<br>700 CE<br>Maya<br>Architecture<br>Tikal 125 ft high<p>Jasaw Chan K'awil's wife - Lady Twelve Macaw<p>Faces Jasaw Chan K'awil's temple – whisper transmits<p> <img src=""/>
The Palace Tablet with Lord K'an Hok' Chitam II<br>Late Classic<br>702 CE<br>Maya<br>Limestone<br>Palenque Shows lineage - with father L (Pakal) and mother R Pakal is offering his headdress <p>Glyphs marking his ascension into power<p>Less formal, simple costume; shows how art has become more relaxed<p> <img src=""/>
Hieroglyphic staircase<br>Late Classic<br>710-755 CE<br>Maya<br>Architecture<br>Copa'n 62 steps 33 ft high 2,200 glyphs <p>Longest known Maya hieroglyphic text<p>Most important 5 rulers depicted from dynasty<p> <img src=""/>
Tikal Temple I<br>Late Classic<br>740-50 CE<br>Maya<br>Architecture<br>Tikal 154 ft high 3 rooms<p>Talud-tablero; Teo style (but with roof comb)<p>Collections of bones, jade/shell ornaments, ceramics, and donations<p> <img src=""/>
Lintel 24, structure 23<br>Late Classic<br>750 CE<br>Maya<br>Limestone<br>Yaxchilan Yaxchilan means "green stones" in Maya<p>Shield Jaguar scene of bloodletting ritual b/c barbed rope through her tongue<p>The ancient name for the city was possibly Pa' Chan<p> <img src=""/>
Pyramid of the Niches<br>Classic<br>800 CE<br>Totonac?<br>Flagstone<br>El Tajín 26 m x 20 m high talud-tablero. 2 phases<p>365 niches, connected to the solar year/calendar<p>7 layers, 7 caves underworld connection<p> <img src=""/>
El Adivino/Pyramid of the Magician/Pyramid of the Dwarf<br>Late Classic<br>850 CE<br>Maya<br>Architecture<br>Uxmal Made in 5 different phases<p>Monster mouth on West side<p>Temple on top is in Puuc-style<p> <img src=""/>
The Wrestler<br>Early to Middle Formative<br>1500 BCE and 400 BCE<br>Olmec<br>Basalt<br>Found in Arroyo Sonso 66 cm high, 3D<p>Found in 1933 holding up a chicken coop<p>Asian features like Manati figures - epicanthic folds<p> <img src=""/>
Created by: takeshertime
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