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APUSH Unit 3.

Chapters 9-12

QuestionAnswer
What was the most important changes brought about by the American Revolution? The increasing separation of church and state
What was a major new political innovation that emerged in the Revolutionary era? The idea of a written constitution drafted by a convention and ratified by direct vote of the people
Despite the Revolution's emphasis on human rights and equality, the Founding Fathers failed to abolish slavery because... Of their fear that a fight over slavery would destroy fragile national unity
The ideal of a "republican motherhood" that emerged from the American Revolution held that... Women had a special responsibility to cultivate the "civic virtues" of republicanism in their children
In the new state constitutions written after the Revolution, the most powerful branch of government was... The legislative branch
One way that American independence actually harmed the nation's economic fortunes was by... Cutting off American trade with the British empire
Attempts to establish strong governments in post-Revolutionary America were seriously hindered by... The revolutionary ideology that preached natural rights and suspicion of all governmental authority
The primary political obstacle to the formation of the first American government under the Articles of Confederation was... Disputes among the jealous states over control of western lands
The greatest weakness of the government under the Articles of Confederation was that... It had no power to regulate commerce or collect taxes from the sovereign states
What did the Northwest Ordinance say about western territories? After sufficient population growth, western territories could be organized and then join the union as states
Shay's Rebellion contributed to the movement for a new constitution by... Raising the fear of anarchy and disorder among wealthy conservatives
Besides George Washington, the most influential figures in the Constitutional Convention were... Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton
The "Great Compromise" finally agreed to by the Constitutional Convention provided that... There would be representation by population in the House of Representatives by equal representation of all states in the Senate
Antifederalists generally found their greatest support among which groups? The poorer debtors and farmers
The crucial federalist successes in the fight for ratification occurred in the states of... Massachusetts, Virginia, and New York
New name for the Anglican Church after it was disestablished and de-Anglicanized in Virginia and elsewhere Protestant Episcopal Church
The idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children Republican Motherhood
A type of special assembly, originally developed in Massachusetts, for drawing up a fundamental law that would be superior to ordinary law Constitutional Convention
The first constitutional government of the United States Articles of Confederation
The territory north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi governed by the acts of 1785 and 1787 Old Northwest
In the new territories, six-mile by six-mile square areas consisting of 36 sections, one of which was set aside for public schools Townships
The status of a western area under the Northwest Ordinance after it established an organized government but before it became a state Territory
A failed revolt in 1786 by poor debtor farmers that raised fears of "mobocracy" Shay's Rebellion
The plan proposed by Virginia at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with representation based on population Large-state plan
The plan proposed by New Jersey for a unicameral legislature with equal representation of states regardless of size and population Small-state plan
The compromise between the North and South that resulted in each slave being counted as 60% of a free person for purposes of representation 3/5 Compromise
The opponents of the Constitution who argued against creating such a strong central government Antifederalists
A masterly series of pro-Constitution articles printed in New York by Jay, Madison, and Hamilton "The Federalist"
The official under the new Constitution who would be commander-in-chief of the armed forces, appoint judges and other officials, and have the power to veto legislation President
A list of guarantees that federalists promised to add to the Constitution in order to win ratification Bill of Rights
Group that failed to block the central government they feared but did force the promise of a bill of rights Antifederalists
Father of the Constitution and author of "Federalist No. 10" James Madison
An exclusive order of military officers that aroused strong democratic opposition Society of the Cincinnati
Wealthy conservatives devoted to republicanism who engineered a nonviolent political transformation Federalists
Legislation passed by an alliance of Jefferson and the Baptists that disestablished the Anglican church Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Revolutionary War veteran who led poor farmers in a revolt that failed but had far-reaching consequences Daniel Shays
Elder statesman who lent his prestige to the Constitutional Convention and promoted the "Great Compromise" Benjamin Franklin
The only state to allow a direct vote on the Constitution New York
Frustrated foreign affairs secretary under the Articles; one of the three authors of "The Federalist" John Jay
Legislation that provided for the orderly transformation of western territories into states Northwest Ordinance of 1787
First of key states where federalists won by a narrow margin over the opposition of antifederalist Sam Adams Massachusetts
Virginia antifederalist leader who thought the Constitution spelled the end of liberty and equality Patrick Henry
Unanimously elected chairman of the secret convention of "demi-gods" George Washington
Young New Yorker who argued eloquently for the Consitution even though he favored an even stronger central government Alexander Hamilton
Document of 1781 that was put out of business by the Constitution Articles of Confederation
What was the effect of the American Revolution? Brought about somewhat greater social and economic equality and the virtual end of slavery in the North
What was the effect of the agreement among states to give up western land claims? Made possible the approval of the Articles of Confederation and the passage of two important laws governing western lands
What was the effect of the weakness of the Articles of Confederation? Nearly bankrupted the national government and invited assaults on American interests by foreign powers
What was the effect of Shays's Rebellion? Scared conservatives and made them determined to strengthen the central government against debtors
What was the effect of the conflict in the Constitutional Convention between large and small states? Forced the adoption of the "Great Compromise," which required a bicameral legislature with two different bases of representation
What was the effect of the North-South conflict in the Constitutional Convention over counting slaves for representation? Forced acceptance of the "Three-Fifths Compromise," counting each slave as 3/5 of a person for purposes of representation
What was the effect of a meeting in Annapolis to discuss revising the Articles of Confederation? Issued a call to Congress for a special convention to revise the Articles of Confederation
What was the effect of antifederalist fears that the Constitution would destroy liberties? Made the federalists promise to add a bill of rights to the Constitution
What was the effect of "The Federalist" and fears that New York would be left out of the Union? Finally brought New York to ratify the Constitution by a narrow margin
What was the effect of the disestablishment of the Anglican Church? Laid the basis for the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom and the separation of church and state
A key addition to the new federal government that had been demanded by many of the ratifying states was... A written bill of rights to guarantee liberty
One immediate innovation not mentioned in the Constitution that was developed by George Washington's administration was... The cabinet
The Bill of Rights is the name given to provisions whose actual form is... The first ten amendments to the federal Constitution
True or false: Rights to freedom of education and freedom of travel are included in the Bill of Rights. False
The Ninth and Tenth Amendments partly reversed the federalist momentum of the Constitution by declaring that... All rights not mentioned in the federal Constitution were retained by the states or by the people themselves
What was the intent of Hamilton's first financial policies? To fund the national debt and to have the federal government assume the debts owed by the states
What was the essential disagreement between Hamilton and Jefferson over the proposed Bank of the United States? Whether the Constitution granted the federal government the power to establish such a bank
The first American political parties developed primarily out of... The disagreement of Jefferson and his states' rights followers with Hamilton's economic policies
Why was the Whiskey Rebellion most significant? It showed that the new federal government would use force if necessary to uphold its authority
Regarding the French Revolution, most Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans believed that... The Revolution should be supported by American military aid
Washington's foreign policy rested on the basic belief that... It was in America's interest to stay neutral in all European wars.
Why did the United States become involved in undeclared hostilities with France in 1797? French interference with American shipping and freedom of the seas
Who were the Alien and Sedition Acts primarily aimed at? The Jeffersonians and their allegedly pro-French activities and ideas
In foreign policy, Jeffersonians essentially believed that... The United States should turn westward, away from old Europe, and strengthen democracy at home
What did Federalists essentially believe concerning government control? There should be a strong central government controlled by the wealthy and well-educated.
The official body designated to choose the President under the new Constitution, which in 1789 unanimously elected George Washington Electoral College
The constitutional office into which John Adams was sworn on April 30, 1789 Vice President
The cabinet office in Washington's administration headed by a brilliant young West Indian immigrant who distrusted the people Secretary of the Treasury
Alexander Hamilton's policy of paying off all federal bonds at face value in order to strengthen the national credit Funding
Hamilton's policy of having the federal government pay the financial obligations of the states Assumption
The first ten amendments to the Constitution Bill of Rights
Political organizations not envisioned in the Constitution and considered dangerous to national unity by most of the Founding Fathers Political parties
Political and social upheaval supported by most Americans during its moderate beginnings in 1789, but the cause of bitter divisions after it took a radical turn in 1792 French Revolution
Agreement signed between two anti-British countries in 1778 that increasingly plagued American foreign policy in the 1790s Franco-American Alliance
Alliance of eight Indian nations led by Little Turtle that inflicted major defeats on American forces in the early 1790s Miami Confederacy
Document signed in 1794 whose terms favoring Britain outraged Jeffersonian Republicans Jay's Treaty
The nation with which the United States fought an undeclared war from 1798 to 1800 France
The political theory on which Jefferson and Madison based their antifederalist resolutions declaring that the thirteen sovereign states had created the Constitution Compact Theory
The doctrine, proclaimed in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, that a state can block a federal law it considers unconstitutional Nullification
The nation to which most Hamiltonian Federalists were sentimentally attached and which they favored in foreign policy Britain
A protest by poor western farmers that was firmly suppressed by Washington and Hamilton's army Whiskey Rebellion
Body organized by the Judiciary Act of 1789 and first headed by John Jay Supreme Court
Brilliant administrator and financial wizard whose career was plagued by doubts about his character and belief in popular government Alexander Hamilton
Political party that believed in the common people, no government aid for business, and a pro-French foreign policy Republicans
President Washington's statement of the basic principles of American foreign policy in his administration Farewell Address
Skillful politician-scholar who drafted the Bill of Rights and moved it through the First Congress James Madison
Institution established by Hamilton to create a stable currency and bitterly opposed by states' rights advocates Bank of the United States
Hamilton's aggressive financial policies of paying off all federal bonds and taking on all state debts Funding and assumption
Harsh and probably unconstitutional laws aimed at radical immigrants and Jeffersonian writers Alien and Sedition Acts
Agreement between the United States and Miami Indians that ceded much of Ohio and Indiana while recognizing a limited sovereignty for the Miamis Treaty of Greenville
Message telling America that it should avoid unnecessary foreign entanglements - a reflection of the foreign policy of its author Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
Secret code names for three French agents who attempted to extract bribes from American diplomats in 1797 XYZ
Washington's secretary of state and the organizer of a political party opposed to Hamilton's policies Thomas Jefferson
Ten constitutional amendments designed to protect American liberties Bill of Rights
Political party that believed in a strong government run by the wealthy, government aid to business, and a pro-British foreign policy Federalists
What was the effect of the need to gain support of wealthy groups for the federal government? Led to imposition of the first tariff in 1789 and the excise tax on whiskey in 1791
What was the effect of the passage of the Bill of Rights? Guaranteed basic liberties and indicated some swing away from Federalist centralizing
What was the effect of the need for federal revenues to finance Hamilton's ambitious policies? Led Hamilton to promote the fiscal policies of funding and assumption
What was the effect of Hamilton's excise tax on western farmers' products? Caused the Whiskey Rebellion
What was the effect of clashes between Hamilton and Jefferson over fiscal policy and foreign affairs? Led to the formation of the first two American political parties
What was the effect of the French Revolution? Caused bitter divisions in America between anti-Revolution Federalists and pro-Revolution Republicans
What was the effect of the danger of war with Britain? Led Washington to support Jay's Treaty
What was the effect of Jay's Treaty? Aroused Jeffersonian Republican outrage at the Washington administration's pro-British policies
What was the effect of the XYZ Affair? Caused an undeclared war with France
What was the fear of the Federalist fear of radical French immigrants? Caused passage of the Alien Acts
The most "revolutionary" development in the critical election of 1800 was... The peaceful transition of power from one political party to its opponent
What Federalist policy did Jefferson quickly overturn? The excise tax
What principle did the case of Marbury v. Madison establish? The Supreme Court has the right to determine the constitutionality of legislation
Why was Jefferson forced to reverse his strong opposition to substantial military forces? The plunder and blackmailing of American shipping by North African states
What was Jefferson's greatest concern in purchasing Louisiana? Whether the purchase was permissible under the Constitution
Who was the greatest political beneficiary of the Louisiana Purchase? Thomas Jefferson
Although greatly weakened after Jefferson's election, the Federalist party's philosophy continued to have great influence through... The Federalist judicial rulings of John Marshall
What does the term "midnight judges" refer to? Federalist judges appointed by President John Adams at the last moments of his administration
The Republicans' failure to impeach Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase established the principle that... Impeachment should be used only for "high crimes and misdemeanors" and not as a political weapon
Jefferson focused his military construction policy primarily on... Building several hundred small gunboats
True or false: The Louisiana Purchase weakened the power of the presidency in foreign affairs. False. It strengthened it.
Name three consequences of the Louisiana Purchase. Geographical and scientific discoveries of Lewis and Clark; expansion of US as a "democratic empire" with new states admitted to equal membership with the old; allowing US to pursue an isolationist policy by removing the last major foreign threat from NA
Jefferson's Embargo Act provided that... America would prohibit all foreign trade
A crucial foreign policy goal for many "war hawks" in the War of 1812 was... The capture and annexation of Canada
Besides creating a pan-Indian military alliance against white expansion, Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa (the Prophet) urged American Indians to... Resist white ways and revive their traditional culture
Most Indian military resistance east of the Mississippi River was effectively crushed in the two battles of... Tippecanoe and Horseshoe Bend
Hamiltonian economic measure repealed by Jefferson and Gallatin Excise tax
Action Jefferson took toward Republican "martyrs" convicted under the Federalist Sedition Law Pardoned
Derogatory Republican term for Federalist judges appointed at the last minute by President Adams Midnight Judges
President-setting Supreme Court case in which Marshall declared part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional Marbury v. Madison
The principle, established by Chief Justice Marshall in a famous case, that the Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional Judicial review
Action voted by House of Representatives against Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase Impeachment
Branch of military service that Jefferson considered least threatening to liberty and most necessary to suppressing the Barbary states Navy
Sugar-rich island where Toussaint L'Ouverture's slave rebellion disrupted Napoleon's dreams of a vast New World empire Santo Domingo
Territory beyond Louisiana, along the Columbia River, explored by Lewis and Clark Oregon Country
Price paid by the US for the Louisiana Purchase $15 million
American ship fired on by British in 1807, nearly leading to war between the two countries Chesapeake
Jefferson's policy of forbidding the shipment of any goods in or out of the United States Embargo
Militantly nationalistic western congressmen eager for hostilities with the Indians, Canadians, and British War hawks
Battle in 1811 where General Harrison defeated the Indian forces under Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa (the Prophet) Tippecanoe
Derisive Federalist name for the War of 1812 that blamed it on the Republican president Mr. Madison's War
Former vice president, killer of Alexander Hamilton, and plotter of mysterious secessionist schemes Aaron Burr
Military leader who defeated Tecumseh's brother, "the Prophet," at the Battle of Tippecanoe William Henry Harrison
Swiss-born treasury secretary who disliked national debt but kept most Hamiltonian economic measures in effect Albert Gallatin
American minister to Paris who joined James Monroe in making a magnificent real estate deal Robert Livingston
Strong believer in strict construction, weak government, and antimilitarism who was forced to modify some of his principles in office Thomas Jefferson
Shawnee leader who organized a major Indian confederation against US expansion Tecumseh
Federalist Supreme Court justice impeached by the House in 1804 but acquitted by the Senate Samuel Chase
British attack on American sailors that aroused angry demands for war Chesapeake affair
Young army officer who joined Jefferson's personal secretary in exploring the Louisiana Purchase and Oregon country William Clark
Restrictive trade policy that hurt Britain but hurt American shippers and farmers even more Embargo Act of 1807
Ruling based on a "midnight judge" case that established the right of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional Marbury v. Madison
North African leader who fought an undeclared war with the United States from 1801 to 1805 Pasha of Tripoli
Gifted black revolutionary whose successful slave revolution indirectly led to Napoleon's sale of Louisiana Toussaint L'Ouverture
French ruler who acquired Louisiana from Spain only to sell it to the United States Napoleon Bonaparte
Federalist Supreme Court justice whose brilliant legal efforts established the principle of judicial review John Marshall
What was the effect of Jefferson's moderation and continuation of many Federalist policies? Created stability and continuity in the transition of power from one party to another
What was the effect of Adams's appointment of "midnight judges"? Aroused Jeffersonian hostility to the Federalist judiciary and led to repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801
What was the effect of Marshall's ruling in Marbury v. Madison? Established the principle of "judicial review" of of laws by the Supreme Court
What was the effect of the Barbary pirates' attacks on American shipping? Forced a reluctant Jefferson to send the US Navy into military action
What was the effect of France's acquisition of Louisiana from Spain? Made Americans eager to purchase New Orleans in order to protect their Mississippi River shipping
What was the effect of Napoleon's foreign troubles with Britain and Santo Domingo? Led to a surprise offer to sell Louisiana to the United States for $15 million
What was the effect of the Louisiana Purchase? Provoked Federalists to charge Jefferson with unconstitutional expansionism
What was the effect of British impressment of American sailors and anger at American harboring of British deserters? Led to an aggressive and deadly assault on the American ship Chesapeake
What was the effect of French compliance with Macon's Bill No. 2? Forced Madison to declare a policy of nonimportation that accelerated the drift toward war
What was the effect of Western war hawks' fervor for acquiring Canada and removing resisting Indians? Caused Harrison's and Jackson's military ventures and contributed to the declaration of war in 1812
The greatest American military successes of the War of 1812 came in the... Naval battles on the Great Lakes and elsewhere
Two prominent American military heroes during the War of 1812 were... Oliver Hazard Perry and Andrew Jackson
The American victory in the Battle of New Orleans proved essentially meaningless because... The peace treaty had been signed several weeks before
The terms of the Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812 provided that... The two sides would stop fighting and return to the status quo before the war
One significant domestic consequence of the War of 1812 was... An increase in domestic manufacturing and economic independence
One significant domestic consequence of the War of 1812 was... A growth in Canadian patriotism and nationalism
The Era of Good Feelings was sharply disrupted by... The panic of 1819 and the battle over slavery in Missouri
True or false: After the War of 1812, there was a significant addition of territory to the United States. False. There was no new land.
Besides admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, the Missouri Compromise provided that... Slavery would not be permitted anywhere in the Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri, except in Missouri itself.
In the case of McCulloch v. Maryland, Justic John Marshall held that... The federal Bank of the United States was constitutional, and no state had a right to tax it.
The most prominent political figure who shared John Marshall's belief in expanding the power of the federal government at the expense of the states was... Daniel Webster
Andrew Jackson's invasion of Florida led to permanent acquisition of that territory after... Secretary of State Adams pressured Spain to cede the area to the United States
The original impetus for declaring the Monroe Doctrine came from... A British proposal that America join Britain in guaranteeing the independence of the Latin American republics
As proclaimed by Monroe in his mesage of 1823, the Monroe Doctrine asserted that... The United States would not tolerate further European intervention or colonization in the Americas
The immediate effect of the Monroe Doctrine at the time it was issued was... Very small
One of the Great Lakes where Oliver H. Perry captured a large British fleet Lake Erie
Stirring patriotic song written by Francis Scott Key Star-Spangled Banner
Famous American frigate that was larger and heavier than most British ships The Constitution
Gathering of prominent New England Federalists who considered secession Hartford Convention
Two prominent Washington buildings burned by the British in 1814 Capitol and White House
Intellectual magazine that reflected the post-1815 spirit of American nationalism "North American Review"
Henry Clay's ambitious nationalistic proposal for tariffs, internal improvements, and expanded manufacturing American System
Somewhat inappropriate term applied to the Monroe administrations, suggesting that this period lacked major conflicts Era of Good Feelings
Once-prominent political party that effectively died by 1820 Federalists
Major water transportation route financed and built by New York State after President Madison vetoed federal funding Erie Canal
Line designated as the future boundary between free and slave territories under the Missouri Compromise 36 30'
Supreme Court ruling that defended federal power by denying a state the right to tax a federal bank McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court case in which Daniel Webster successfully argued that a state could not charge a legal charter once granted Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Territory occupied jointly by Britain and the United States under the Treaty of 1818 Oregon
A presidential foreign-policy proclamation that might well have been called the "Adams Doctrine" or the "Self-Defense Doctrine" Monroe Doctrine
Admitted one slave and one free state to the Union, and fixed the boundary between slave and free territories Missouri Compromise
Military commander who exceeded his government's instructions during an invasion of Spanish territory Andrew Jackson
The leading voice promoting nationalism and greater federal power in the United States Senate during the 1820s Daniel Webster
Aristocratic Federalist jurist whose rulings bolstered national power against the states John Marshall
Eloquent Kentucky spokesman for the "American System" and key architect of the Missouri Compromise in the US Senate Henry Clay
Nationalistic secretary of state who promted American interests against Spain and Britain John Quincy Adams
Area where vulnerable new republics tempted European monarchies to intervene Latin America
American naval hero of the War of 1812 who said, "...our country, right or wrong!" Stephen Decatur
First severe depression since 1790 Panic of 1819
Territory ceded by Spain after Americans invaded and applied diplomatic pressure Florida
Gathering of antiwar delegates in New England that ended up being accused of treason Hartford Convention
President whose personal popularity contributed to the Era of Good Feelings James Monroe
Agreement that simply stopped fighting and left most of the war issues unresolved Treaty of Ghent
1817 agreement that limited American and British naval forces on the Great Lakes Rush-Bagot agreement
Russian ruler whose mediation proposal led to negotiations ending the War of 1812 Tsar Alexander I
What was the effect of American lack of military preparation and poor strategy? Produced a series of badly failed attempts to conquer Canada
What was the effect of Oliver H. Perry's and Thomas Macdonough's naval successes? Reversed a string of American defeats and prevented a British-Canadian invasion from the north
What was the effect of Tsar Alexander I's mediation proposal? Eventually led to the beginnings of peace negotiations at Ghent
What was the effect of the Hartford Convention? Contributed to the death of the Federalist party and the impression that New Englanders where disloyal
What was the effect of Canadians' successful defense of their homeland in the War of 1812? Inspired a new sense of Canadian nationalism
What was the effect of the Rush-Bagot agreement? Reduced armaments along the border between the United States and Canada and laid the groundwork for "the longest unfortified boundary in the world"
What was the effect of the rising nationalistic economic spirit after the War of 1812? Inspired a new Bank of the United States and the protectionist Tariff of 1816
What was the effect of the disappearance of the Federalists and President Monroe's appeals to New England? Created a temporary one-party system and an "Era of Good Feelings"
What was the effect of overspeculation in western lands? Caused the economy to collapse in the panic of 1819
What was the effect of cheap land and increasing westward migration? Fueled demands in Congress for transportation improvements and the removal of the Native Americans
What was the effect of the deadlock between North and South over the future of slavery in Missouri? Produced the Missouri Compromise, which admitted two states and drew a line between slave and free territories
What was the effect of the Missouri Compromise? Aroused souther fears for the long-term future of slavery
What was the effect of John Marshall's Supreme Court rulings? Upheld the power of the federal government against the states
What was the effect of the rise of European reactionary powers and the loss of Spain's colonial empire? Aroused American and British fears of European intervention in Latin America
What was the effect of the Monroe Doctrine? Angered Britain and other European nations but had little effect in Latin America
Created by: ejustice75