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UKCD Histo Blood/Hem

Test objective answers for blood/hemopoeisis

QuestionAnswer
Which common C.T. components does blood, as a specialized from of C.T., exhibit? Cells & amorphous ground substance (plasma/serum)
Which common C.T. component is missing from blood? Fibers
What are the anuclear formed elements of blood? Red blood cells and platelets
Why doesn’t an erythrocyte have a nucleus? It doesn’t need one has it as a single function, carrying O2/CO2 around the blood vascular system. Once the manufacture of hemoglobin finished, so did the cell’s need for a nucleus.
What is a reticulocyte and how prevalent are they in peripheral blood? An immature RBC - one that exhibits traces of the rRNA required for manufacture of hemoglobin. They should comprise no more than 1-2% of peripheral blood.
How do platelets differ from erythrocytes? Platelets are biconvex disc; they contain a marginal ring of microtubules and cytoplasmic granules that contain serotonin.
What do the granules of platelets contain? Serotonin, a potent vasoconstrictor (constricts blood vessels).
What is the function of platelets? Platelets aid in clotting: they secrete serotonin to constrict blood vessels to lessen blood loss at a cut site as well as secrete fibrin to aid in thrombus (clot) formation. They also adhere to any non-endothelial-lined surfaces.
What are the two major subgroups of leukocytes? Granular and agranular leukocytes
What is meant by the term “specific granules”? Specific granules are granules that stain specifically (i.e. red, blue) with a specific stain. Generally, they are lysosomes.
Characteristics and Function of Neutrophils multilobed (3-5 lobes) nucleus with smallish purple-staining specific granules
Characteristics and Function of eosinophils bilobed nucleus with large eosinophilic (pink) granules
Characteristics and Functions of basophils bilobed nucleus with large basophilic (blue) granules. These cells exhibit the majority of their functions once the leave the peripheral blood and enter C.T.
What is a drumstick appendage (Barr body)? The extra X chromosome of females
Which blood cell will exhibit the Barr body? It is a small drumstick-shaped appendage sticking out of one of the lobes of the nucleus of a neutrophil.
Types of agranular leukocytes are large/ small Lymphocytes and monocytes:
Characteristics and Function of large/small lymphocytes ovoid nucleus with thin rim of slightly basophilic cytoplasm, large and small subdivisions differ with regard to the amount of cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus
Characteristics and Function of monocytes large pale U-shaped nucleus and surrounding thin rim of cytoplasm.
Which blood cells leave the peripheral blood? neurophils, esoinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes
What do blood cells become when they leave the peripheral blood? neurophils -> polymorphs, eosinophils -> eosinophils, basophils -> mast cells, B cells -> plasma cells, monocytes -> monocytes
The specific granules of which granulocyte are not lysosomes? Only the specific granules of the basophil are not lysosomes - containing heparin and histamine.
The specific granules of which granulocyte are recognizable from all other cells of the body with TEM? How? The lysosomes of eosinophils contain a characteristic crystalloid that distinguishes this cell type from all others of the body under TEM.
A high level of circulating eosinophils reflects what condition? What does it mean? Eosinophilia is indicative of a systemic allergic reaction.
List any blood cells/formed elements which should never leave circulating blood. Red blood cells and platelets are formed elements that should never leave the peripheral blood under normal circumstances.
List the blood cell types in order of their relative abundance in any given sample of blood. Red blood cells, platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
What are the two subtypes of lymphocytes? Small and large lymphocytes, based on overall size of the cell
What are the subtypes of small lymphocytes? B (Bursa-derived) cells/lymphocytes and T (Thymus-derived) cells/lymphocytes
What is a null lymphocyte and what is its function? Lymphocytes that do not exhibit surface marking antigens of either the B or T cell classifications. They represent about 5% of the lymphocyte population.
How do T-cells differ from B-cells functionally? T-cells have unique cell surface proteins and function as mediators of the cellular immune response. B-cells have intramembrane immunoglobulin molecules acting as antigen receptors. They mediate the humoral response.
What can happen when a B lymphocyte encounters an antigen? The B-cell will divide several times and these cells will differentiate into plasma cells which secreted protein-based antibodies to the specific antigen.
What can happen when a T lymphocyte encounters an antigen? T-cells will divide produce cells that differentiate into 1 of 3 subtypes: cytotoxic T cells; helper T cells; suppressor T cells
What is hemopoiesis? Replacement of blood cells - or blood cell formation
Why is hemopoiesis necessary? Every blood cell has a finite life span, some longer than others, but they all need to be replaced eventually.
Where does hemopoiesis occur in the fetus; in the adult? The liver is a dominant hemopoietic organ in the fetus. In mature life, only the bone marrow of certain bones, the spleen, lymph nodes and up to puberty, the thymus.
What is a reticular cell? The fixed macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system
What are the functions of a reticular cell? Phagocytosis, secretion of a reticular fiber network, secretes several colony-stimulating factors that stimulate differentiation of stem cells in bone marrow.
What are the other components of myeloid tissue? Reticular cells that form the stroma; venous sinusoids that allow blood cell escape (entrance into the peripheral blood) and free cells (billions of blood cells in various stages of differentiation)
What is a “nest” in bone marrow? A group of a specific type of blood cell differentiation within the stromal meshwork of the marrow.
How do RBCs developing nests differ from those of developing granulocytes? RBC and platelet nests are located closer to the venous sinusoids as they are the predominate elements of peripheral blood and larger numbers need to enter the system than for other blood cell types.
How do mature RBCs etc. gain access to the peripheral blood? The mature blood cells pushes against the posterior aspect of the sinusoid’s endothelial lining creating an “aperture” through which they pass and enter the peripheral blood.
What is a CFU? colony forming unit, a stem cell from which specific blood cell lines of the marrow arise.
What is a CFC? colony forming cell; colony forming cells which arise from a CFU, one for each end-cell of the various types of blood cells produced
What is a CSF? colony stimulating factor, factors that control the differentiation of the various cell lines
Which stages of each blood cell lineage is likely to be found in peripheral blood? Mature blood cell types plus the immediate step prior to the mature cell (i.e. reticulocyte, band cell granulocyte forms)
Which stages of each blood cell lineage is likely to be found in extravascular marrow spaces? All the various phases in blood cell development from the CFU to mature blood cells types
How are platelets formed and from what cell type do they arise directly? Platelets from by pieces of megakaryocyte cytoplasm stripping off the mother cell
What changes occur during the differentiation of erythrocytes? 1. Decrease in cell size; 2. Condensation of chromatin; 3. Loss of nucleus; 4. Acquisition of hemoglobin
Why do they lose their basophilia and take on acidophilia. As the cell fills with hemoglobin an acidophilic component thus attracting basophilic (blue) dyes), the need for the synthetic apparatus that produced it (the rER) is less and it was once highly acidophilic attracting basophilic (blue) dyes.
List the stages involved in erythropoiesis. Proerythroblast - basophilic erythroblast - polychromatic erythroblast - orthochromatic erythroblast (normoblast) - reticulocyte - red blood cell (erythrocyte)
What structural/color features are associated with Proerythroblast? not distinguishable
What structural/color features are associated basophilic erythroblasts? dense chromatin and intense blue cytoplasm
What structural/color features are associated polychromatic erythroblasts? pale nucleus with grey to grey-blue cytoplasm
What structural/color features are associated orthochromatic erythroblasts (normoblast)? erythroblast-color cytoplasm, dark pyknotic nucleus
What structural/color features are associated reticulocytes? erythroblast-color cytoplasm, no nucleus, faint blue strands of rER
What changes occur during the differentiation of granulocytes? 1. Decreased cell size; 2. Increased lobulation of nucleus; 3. Increased number of specific granules
List the cell stages involved in granulopoiesis. Promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band form, mature (segmented) granulocyte
What structural/color features are associated with Promyelocyte? round/oval nucleus, basophilic cytoplasm
What structural/color features are associated with myelocyte? specific granules first appear, round/ovoid nucleus
What structural/color features are associated with metamyelocyte? indented nucleus, granule numbers increases
What structural/color features are associated with band form? deeply-indented C-shaped nucleus;
Where does lymphopoiesis occur? Lymphopoiesis occurs in bone marrow as well as in lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus).
Which specific blood cells are formed from lymphopoiesis? Primarily the agranular leukocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes.
What is the function of the neurophils that leave the peripheral blood once they enter C.T.? seek out/ingest bacteria
What is the function of cytotoxic T cells? primary effectors in cell-mediated immunity that kill foreign cells
What is the function of the eosinophils that leave the peripheral blood once they enter C.T.? ingest antigen/antibody complexes/larval stages of parasites
What is the function of the basophils that leave the peripheral blood once they enter C.T.? secrete heparin/histamine
What is the function of the B cells that leave the peripheral blood once they enter C.T.? secrete humoral antibodies in response to antigens
What is the function of the monocytes that leave the peripheral blood once they enter C.T.? fuse to form osteoclast and are the immediate precursor of tissue macrophages of C.T.
What is the function of helper T cells? secrete lymphokinis that stimulate B cell participation
What is the function of suppressor T cells? suppress activity of B cells as well as the immune response to self-molecules
Created by: wiechartm