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Cells & Tissues

Connective Tissue Exam

Functions of Extracellular Matrix Reservoir for water, ions, nutrients, hormones, cell signaling molecules; Maintain strength & rigidity of tissue; Maintain shape of tissue; Medium through which nutrients & metabolic wastes exchanged
Types of Fibers Collagen, Type III-Reticular, and Type II-Elastic
Collagen Fibers Synthesis of Collagen: As procollagen a secreted protein; soluble; triple helix of 3 polypeptides; After secreted converted to tropocollagen; insoluble & fibrillar; Self-assembles to form fibrils & fibers
Organization & Size of fibrils & fibers Type I: Ubiquitous, Largest Fibers (found everywhere); Type II: Hyaline & Elastic Cartilage-fibrils only; Type III: Reticular (found in lymphoid organs-spleen, lymph nodes) Type IV: No fibers-meshwork in basal lamina
Type III Collagen: Reticular Fibers Very thin fibers from loose networks; High affinity for silver stains; Argyrophilic; Found in lymphoid organs
Type II Collagen: Elastic Found in the ear; Fiber bundles composed of ELASTIN; Cross-linked peptides provide extensibility
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) A carbohydrate polymer that makes up the ECM. A linear polysaccharide formed of repeating disaccharides (uronic acid & hexosamine); Covalently linked to core protein to form Proteoglycans; EXCEPTION-Hyaluronic acid not linked to protein;
GAGs cont'd Are abundant in sulfate & carboxyl groups which make the molecules hydrophilic & negatively charged attracting water thus maintaining the ECM hydrated
Proteoglycans A core protein w/ a glycosaminoglycans attached such as: dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, heparan sulfate
Adhesive Glycoproteins Types: FIBRONECTIN-made up of 2 peptides, binds cells to components of ECM, binding site for cells, collagen, heparan; LAMININ-Synthesized by epithelial cells, binds epithelia to components of basal lamina, binding site for collagen, heparan cells
Laminin Synthesized by epithelial cells; binds epithelia to components of basal lamina; binding site for Type IV collagen, heparan cells
Integrins Plasma membran proteins; Binding site for ECM components: collagen (Type I, Type II, Type IV), Fibronectin, Laminin
Basal Lamina Specialized ECM attaching epithelia to CT; allows Type IV collagen fibers in matrix to attach to Laminin-adhesive molecule of matrix, attachment sites for epithelial integrins and type IV collagen
Mesenchyme Precursor of the CT; mostly Mesoderm; some Ectoderm mainly in head & neck; Pluripotent cells-have capacity to develop into multi. types of cells; Lack fibers in extracellular matrix
Embryonic CT MESENCHYME-embryonic precursor of CT; MUCOID-mostly extraembryonic; in umbilical cord
Adult CT LOOSE-High conc. of cells w/ relatively few fibers: Areolar, Adipose, Reticular; DENSE-relatively few cells w/ abundance of fibers: Irregular, Regular, Elastic; SPECIAL-Blood, Cartilage, Bone, Hematopoietic-blood forming cells
Functions of CT Structural support, Defense, Protection, Exchange medium, Energy Storage
Components of CT Cells and Extracellular Matrix-fibers and ground substance
Cells of CT FIXED: produced locally, remain in tissue to carry out function (Embryonic Mesenchyme, Fibroblasts, Adipocytes, Reticular Cells); FREE: produced in other locations & migrate into CT to carry out function (Macrophages, Mast Cells, Plasma Cells)
Fixed Cell: Embryonic Mesenchyme Pluripotent; cytoplasmic extensions; No fibers produced; Respond to signals from surrounding matrix & cells to commit to specific fate
Fixed Cell: Fibroblasts Most common CT cell type; Make type I collagen fibers and secrete ground substance; 2 Types: ACTIVE-abundant in ctyoplasm, pale nucleus; found in areas of tissue construction such as wound repair; QUIESCENT- less active; spindle shaped cell, dark nucleus
Fixed Cell: Adipocytes Specialized for storage of neutral fats or produc. of heat; widespread in CT of all regions of body; signet ring appearance-thin rim of cytoplasm surrounding large lipid droplet; flat nucleus
Fixed Cell: Reticular Cells In reticular CT; synthesize reticular fibers composed of type III collagen; contribure to stroma of bone marrow & lymph tissues
Free Cell: Macrophages Derived from monocytes produced in bone marrow; part of mononuclear phagotcytic system: monocytes, Kupffer cells (in liver), alveolar macrophages (dust cells) Langerhans cells (antigens in skin),microglial cells,tissue macrophages;
Free Cell: Macrophages cont'd Large cells w/ phagocytic and secretory functions; Functions: defense & repair, imune-antigen presenting cells
Free Cell: Mast Cells derived from bone marrow stem cells; distinct cytoplasmic granules exhibit metachromasia (stain a diff color than stain put on them); granules contain mediators of inflammation: heparin (anticoagulant), histamine (vasodilator); eosinophil chemotactic fact
Free Cell: Mast Cells cont'd Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphlaxis (draws eosinophils to areas of allergic rxns); Surface receptors for IgE; Release of granules promotes allergic rxn known as immed. hypersensitivity rxn (poison ivy); abund. in dermis, digestive & respir. tract
Free Cell: Plasma Cells Derived from B-lymphocytes; Eccentric nucleus w/ distinct chromatin pattern; pale"halo" adjacent to nucleus; produces ANTIBODIES; found conc. in areas of chronic inflammation
Types of LOOSE CT Embryonic-mesenchyme & mucoid; Adult- Areolar & Reticular
Embryonic Loose CT Mesenchyme: undifferentiated precursors, pluripotent cells, and extracellular matrix lacks fibers; Mucoid-mostly extraembyronic; found in umbilical cord-called Wharton's Jelly; extracellular matrix rich in hyaluronic acid; fibroblasts and type I collagen
Areolar Loose CT Most abundant in body; Highly vascularized; packing tissue; can see any CT cell type-most abund. asre fibroblasts & macropphages; Flexible, not stress resistant; Freq. found underneath epithelial tissue
Reticular Loose CT Mesh framework of bone marrow & lymph organ; Reticular cells make reticular fibers (type III collagen); Creates trabecular network of cell-sheathed fibers; Abundant macrophages
Adipose Loose CT Large aggregates of adipocytes; 15-20% body weight of males; 20-25% of females; Functions: Energry storage; Shock abs. in hands & feet; Thermal insulation; Packing tissue holds organs in place;
Types of Adipose Loose CT Unilocular: Cells contain single large lipid droplet; most adipose tissue in adult (white fat); Multilocular: Cells contain numerous lipid droplets; present in newborns; produces heat (brown fat)
Types of DENSE CT Dense Irregular, Dense Regular, & Elastic
Dense Irregular CT Fibroblasts & Type I collagen; Bundles of Collagen fibers arranged irregularly; Less flexible than loose CT but more stress resistant; found in dermis of skin, organ capsules, periosteum, perichondrium
Dense Regular CT Fibroblasts & Type I Collagen; bundles of collagen fibers arranged in PARALLEL fashion; high tensile strength in one direction; found in tendons & ligaments
Dense Elastic CT Paralle bundles of elastic fibers (not collagen but of Elastin); some type I collagen Fibers & fibroblasts; found in ligamentum nuchae, ligamentum flavum, suspensory ligament of the penis, vocal ligament, walls of elastic arteries
CARTILAGE-Distinction from other CTs Cartilage: Lacks nerve endings; Lacks vasculature (no blood supply); Lack lymphatics
Types of CARTILAGE Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage
Hyaline Cartilage Most abundant type; Found in articular surfaces of synovial joints, fetal skeleton, respiratory ducts, costal cartilage, epiphyseal plate of growing long bones
Characteristics of Hyaline Cartilage Perichondrium: Dense irregular CT surrounding cartilage; Fibrous outer layer of fibroblasts and type I collagen; Inner layer (Chondrogenic Zone) in actively growing cartilage; chondroblasts
Cells of Cartilage CHONDROBLASTS: On periphery of cartilage in chondrogenic zone; Secret Matrix; Reside in lacunae; Mature to become chondrocytes; CHONDROCYTES: Reside in lacunae; Secrete matrix; Maintain matrix of mature cartilage
Matrix of CARTILAGE High water content resists compression & allows cartilage to act as shock abs.; encloses cells in spaces called lacunae; Fibers Type II collagen & elastin; Ground Substance-Proteoglycans (chondroitin & keratin sulfate) assoc. w/ hyaluronic acid
Matrix of CARTILAGE cont'd Territorial Matrix: IMMEDIATELY surrounding chondrocytes; Rich in glycosaminoglycans & poor in Collagen; Stains basophilic; INTERTERRITORIAL matrix: AWAY from Chondrocytes; Rich in Collagen; Stains less basophilic
Nutrition of HYALINE Cartilage Diffusion from perichondrium; Limits thickness of cartilage; ARTICULAR cartilage lacks perichondrium-nutrition by synovial fluid (turned over frequently) & requires mvmt. of joint to replenish synovial fluid
ELASTIC Cartilage Similar to hyaline cartilage; Contains ELASTIC fibers & Type II Collagen; More flexible than hyaline cartilage; Found in: External Ear, Eustachian tube, & Epiglottis
FIBROCARTILAGE Characteristics similar to Dense Regular CT & cartilage; Cells in Lacunae aligned in rows; Type I Collagen Fibers; NO perichondrium; Found in IVD, Symphysis Pubis, TMJ, Menisci of knee, labrum of glenohumeral & coxofemoral joints
GROWTH of Cartilage INTERSTITIAL: (seen in middle) Chondrocytes w/in matrix divide; Isogenous groups; Only during early growth of most cartilage; Imp. in Epiphyseal plates & in articular cartilage; APPOSITIONAL: (along edges)
GROWTH of Cartilage cont'd From different. of chondroblasts in Chondrogenic Zone of perichondrium; Only poss. in cartilage w/ Perichondrium (Hyaline & Elastic)
BONE Specialized CT; Solid mineralized matrix-cells in lacunae; Vascularized-has a blood supply
Functions of Bone Support; Protect organs; Levers for mvmt. by muscles; Storage site for Ca (muscle contraction) and Phosphate (generate energy)
Classification of Bones By SHAPE: Long bones-diaphysis (shaft), epiphysis (rounded end), Marrow Cavity; Short bones; Flat bones; Irregular bones; SPECIAL Bones: Wormian, Sesamoid; By HISTOLOGICAL Organiz: Spongy bone (cancellous, trabecular); Compact
Tissue Prep. for Histological Study Decalcified Bone-Preserves cells; Ground Bone-Preserves architecture, loses cells
Composition of Bone PERIOSTEUM: Outer surface of bone; Outer fibrous layer-fibroblasts & type I collagen; Inner cellular layer: Osteoprogenitor cells; Sharpey's fibers (holds periosteum to bone); ENDOSTEUM: Inner surfaces; Thinner than periosteum; Osteoprogen. cells & Ret CT
Types of Bone Cells OSTEOPROGENITOR CELLS: Derived from mesenchyme; Gives rise to Osteoblasts; Found in inner layer of periosteum, endosteum, lining of Haversian Canals
Types of Bone Cells OSTEOBLASTS: Secrete matrix of bone (type I collagen & ground substance), found on surface of growing bone; gives rise to Osteocytes;
Types of Bone Cells OSTEOCYTES: surrounded by mineralized matrix, maintains contact w/ other cells via cellular processes occupying canliculi in matrix; Maintains matrix of bone;
Types of Bone Cells OSTEOCLASTS: sit on surfaces; part of mononuclear phagocytic system derived from bone marrow; Giant multinucleated cells; Functions to RESORB bone; Seals off portion of bone surface & releases lytic enzymes;
Hormonal regulation of Osteoclasts Parathryoid Hormone: Stimulates bone resorption & incr. blood calcium (released if Ca levels drop); Calcitonin: From thyroid; Inhibits activity & decr. blood Ca (released if too much Ca in body)
Matrix of Bone-2 Parts ORGANIC: 50% of matrix; Type I collagen; Proteoglycans & Glycoproteins; INORGANIC: 50% of matrix; Mainly Ca & Phosphate; Mostly hydroxyapetite crystals; ~10% Ca carbonate; small amt. of magnesium fluoride
COMPACT Bone Outer circumferential lamellae-under periosteum; Inner circumferential lamellae-around marrow cavity; Osteons (haversian system)-Central Canal; blood vessel & osteoblasts; Concentric Lamellae-layers of bone deposit. by singl layer of osteoblasts
COMPACT Bone cont'd Interstitial Lamellae-Remnants of previous osteons remaining after remodeling; Volkmann's Canals: Nutrients enter thru to supply branches of bone; found on periphery of all bone
SPONGY Bone Found in epihysis & adj. to marrow cavity; Spicules & Trabeculae; Covered with Endosteum
Types of Bone Formation INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION: Flat bones of head, face, & clavicles; Forms directly from mesenchyme; 1˚ Ossification Center: Osteoblast from mesenchyme secrete matrix, matrix calcified, forms spicules=fuse & form trabeculae
Types of Bone Formation cont'd ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION: Forms most bones of the body; Replacement of cartilage model; Steps: Formation of periosteal bone collar w/in perichondrium of diaphysis; Hypertrophy & calcification of underlying chondrocytes; death of chondrocyte; b.v. enter
Types of Bone Formation cont'd bony collar carrying osteoprog. cells; osteoblasts differentiate & deposit matrix; growth is bidirectional toward each epiphysis
Zones of Bone Formation in Epiphyseal Cartilage Zone of Reserve; Zone of Proliferation; Zone of Calcification & cell death; Zone of Ossification & Resorption
WOVEN Bone 1st Bone formed by either Intramembranous or Endochondral; Can be remodeled into EITHER SPONGY or COMPACT bone; Lower mineral content & higher conc. of osteocytes; Irregular orientation of collagen fibers
Blood Special CT; Has a fluid (liquid) matrix; Fibers soluble/insoluble
Functions of Blood Nutrient Trans; Waste Trans, Distribute Hormones; Reg. of body temp. Maintain acid-base bal. Maintain osmotic pressure; Defense (WBC); Gas Transport
Composition of Blood Fluid-plasma; Formed Elements: Erythrocytes-RBCs 40%, transp. O2; Leukocytes-WBCs 1%, immune func.; Platelets-imp. in clotting
Plasma Made up of: PLASMA PROTEINS (albumin, α-,β-,ϒ-globulins, fibrinogen); ORGANIC Compounds (amino acids, glucose, vitamins, hormones); INORGANIC SALTS (electrolytes)
Serum The fluid remaining afer clot forms; Doesn't has proteins or formed elements; Has h20 & electrolytes;
Erythrocytes-RBCs Has no nuclues biconcave disk; Membrane stabilized by Spectin & Actin-help maintain shape & allows for flex.; Specialized for O2 transport by Hemoglobin
O2 Transport Protein Hemoglobin trans. O2; Oxyhemoglobin: Bound to O2, binding is reversible; Carbamohemoglobin: Bound to carbon dioxide; Binding is reversible; Carboxyhemoglobin: Bound to Carbon Monoxide; Binding Irreversible
RBC Abnormalities HEMOGLOBIN: Hypochromic anemia-low amt. of hemoglobin/cell; Sickle Cell-Abnormal hemoglobin (reduces capacity of O2 to be carried & incr. strokes);NUMBERS: Anemia-low Red cell count; Polycythemia-High red cell count;SIZE: micro, macrocytosis; SHAPE poikil
Leukocytes-WBCs Involved in body defense; Frequently exit blood & enter tissue (diapedesis); 2 Types of WBCs: Granulocytes & Agranulocytes
WBCs-Granulocytes NEUTROPHILS: 60-70% of WBCs (majority); Nucleus has 2-5 lobes; Defend against BACTERIA; EOSINOPHILS: stain red; 2-4% of WBCs; bilobed nucleus; Red granules contain protein imp. in defense of infection by PARASITIC WORMS; numbers incr. in parasitic infect.
WBCs-Granulocytes BASOPHILS: .5-1% of WBCs; Granules contain Heparin & Histamine; Active in INFLAMMATORY response & HYPERSENSITIVITY rxns (poison ivy)
WBCs-Agranuloctyes Rounded or indented nucleus; No granules; LYMPHOCYTES:
Created by: terryg025