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* Geography *
Nature & Perspectives
|The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape. This is an important concept in geography because it symbolizes how humans interact with their surroundings.
|Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group. This is the essence of how humans interact with nature.
|The total number of people divided by the total land area. This is what most people think of as density; how many people per area of land.
|The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. This is important because it relates to how much land is being used by how many people.
|The region from which innovative ideas originate. This relates to the important concept of the spreading of ideas from one area to another (diffusion).
|The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
|The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another. Ex: spread of AIDS from New York, California, & Florida.
|The spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process. This can happen in 3 ways:
|The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places (Ex: hip-hop/rap music)
|The rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population. (Ex: ideas placed on the internet)
|the spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. (Ex: PC & Apple competition, p40)
|the spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently Stimulus diffusion
|Exact measurement of the physical space between two places
|Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places.
|The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface.
|A 19th- and early 20th-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences.
|Position on Earth’s surface using the coordinate system of longitude (that runs from North to South Pole) and latitude (that runs parallel to the equator)
|Position on Earth’s surface relative to other features. (Ex: My house is west of 394).
|The physical character of place; what is found at the location and why it is significant (For more on Site & Situation, see p.16).
|The location of a place relative to other places. (For more on Site & Situation, see p.16).
|The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation system.
|Space Time Compression
|based on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort, money, and/or energy to overcome. Because of this "friction," spatial interactions will tend to take place more often over shorter distance.
|Friction of Distance
|The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
|defined by Manuel Castells as a set of interconnected nodes without a center.
|The relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space. Geographers are concerned with the various means by which connections occur
|The degree of ease with which it is possible to reach certain location from other locations. Accessibility varies from place to place and can be measured.
|Refers to the physical gap or interval between two objects
|Physical location of geographic phenomena across SPACE
|Is the estimation or determination of extent.
|Representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization
|- (uniform) or homogenous region is an area within which everyone shares in common one or mare distinctive characteristics.
|(nodal region) Area organized around a node or focal point.
|(Perceptual Region) is a place that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity
|The physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment.
|a landscape that is unaffected by human activity
|A common property of distribution, which is the geometric arrangement of objects in space
|Often referred to as a places toponym (the name given to a place on Earth