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The Ear Study G

The Ear

QuestionAnswer
Where is the vestibular system? Embedded in the bone, and its a hollow chamber called the ossesous labyrinth
What is the ossesou labyrinth filled with? Perilymph which is like extracellular fluid
What floats in the perilymph? The membranous labyrinth
What fluid is inside the membranous labyrinth? Endolymph which is like intracellular fluid
What is the vestibular system made up of? Semicircular canals, utricle and saccule
Where do the semicircular canals begin and end? With the utricle
What enlargement does each canal have? Ampulla: Sensory patch called the cristae ampullaris, there are supporting cells and sensory/neuroepithelial cells
True or False: THe cristae and semicircular canals are only involved in rotational changes in acceleration and deceleration True
Name the two types of sensory cells Type 1 and Type 2
List features of the type 1 cell flask-shaped, calyx around it which is a cup like post synaptic structure
Name feature of type 2 cell Cylindrical shaped cell, has bouton type endings, these spherical processes will go to a neuorn called scarpis ganglion which is the primary cell body associated with this system and then to the CNS
What do the supporting cells dor for the neuroepithelium? Insulate and protect them so that they never touch each other
True or False: Each hair cell has multiple kinocilum False. Single kinocilum
Where are the kinocilum embedded? A gelatinous membrane called the cupula
When displacement is towards the kinocilum is it excitatory or inhibitory? Excitattory (Depolarization). Away is inhibitory (hyerperpolarization)
True or False: Fluid has momentary inertia True
True or False: Fluid will move a little longer in the body True
What is the utricuosacular duct? The duct unites the utricle and saccule. It gives rise to the endolymphatic duct and at the end of the endolymphatic sac
Where is the macula patch located in the utricle and saccule? Floor of utricle and wall of saccule
What does the utricle and saccule do? Senses position of head and its linear movement
What do the stereocilium and kinocilum embed into in the macula? Embedds into the under surface of the gelatinous membrane called the otholithic membrabe and on top are calcium carbonate crystals
If someone has bilateral damage to the vestibular system what happens? In the dark they have no sense of orientation
What tube comes off of the saccule? Ductus reuniens that leads to the auditory system
What part of the inner ear is the cochlear labyrinth? Auditory System
What two chambers surround the cochlear duct/scalar media? Sacla vestibuli and scala tympani which is filled with perilymph
What is the cochlear duct filled with? Endolymph
What bone is the cochlear duct embedded in? Putrus bone
What is the central bony core called? The modiolus
Name the two membranes reissner's membrane and basilar membrane
Which membrane does the organ of corti sit on? the basilar membrane and it runs the entire length of the cochlear duct
What is the organ of corti responsible for? The transmission of sound into electrical energy that the brain can interpret
What type of sound is the base and apex responsible for? Base: High-frequency sounds. Apex: Low-frequency sounds
Describe the path of sound transmittance the external auditory meatus, the tympanic membrane, the malleus, incus and stapes, through the oval window where it sets up pressure fluid
Are the inner or outer hair cells closest to the modiolus? Ihe inner hair cells
What cells between the outer and inner hair cells make an inverted V? Inner and outer pillar cells
Which hair cells have the deiter cells? The outer hair cells. They have an elongated process called the phalangeal process
How are the auditory hair cells different from the vesitublar hair cell systems? They have no kinocilia, only stereocilia. During development it was either degenerated or reabsorbed
What is the barrier between perilymph and endolymph? the apical surface of the hair cells which is the reticular lamina
What is the reference point due to the fact there is no kinocilium? Basal bodies
95% of neurons have synaptic contact with which hair cell? Inner hair cell
True or False: Outer hair cells have both actin and myosin in their cell bodies True
Do the inner cells have myosin and actin? Inner cells have some myosin but the predominance of the actin and myosin is in the outer hair cells
True or False: The tallest stereocilia is the only one attached to the tectorial membrane True. the shorter ones are attached to the longest ones and affects them indirectly
Where is endolymph manufactured? In the stria vascularis. It is then circulated throughout the membranous labyrinth and reabsorbed in the endolymph duct and sac which comes off the vestibular portion
What is the purpose of the cochlear implant? To replace the hair cells. There are now implants that replace the eigth nerve