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The Eye Study G

The Eye

Does the eye contain bones? No
What is the eye desgined to do? Capture light and transfer signals into electrical signals
Where do the outside images go to be magnified? In the back to be magnified by the cornea. The lens could be magnifying things, then it comes down the virtues and passing through the retina
Can the eye see? No, it captures light, transfers it into electrical signals, and send it to the back of the brain to do it
What are the muscles in the back of the eye? superior rectus, inferior rectus, lateral rectus, medial rectus, superior oblique, inferior oblique
What is the function of lacrymal glands? Collects the tears, tear ducts, washout or pushback toward the nose, into the caniculus
What is the function of the tear gland? To keep it moist
Does the cornea have blood vessels? No
What is the cornea in continuation with? The outer sclera
Does the brain send nerves to the eye? No, The eye sends nerves to the brain
What inserts in the outer sclera? Muscles
What is the second layer of the eye? Chroid
What is the third layer of the eye? Retina
What fluid is in front of the lens? Aqueous humor
What fluid is behind the lens? Viterous humor
What gives the eye its shape? The gelatinous viterous
Describe the formation of the eye It is an invagination from the dicencephalic vesicle off of the neural tube
What is the name of the place where the retina stops? The orra serrata
What does the pigmentend epithelium do? Makes an extension called the iris
Name the five layers of the cornea Corneal epithelium, Bowman's membrane, substantia propia, descement's membrane, corneal endothelium
What type of epithelium is in the corneal epithelium? Straified squamous, with an outer small non-keratinized flat layer with a small cilia plasma membrane
Are there blood vessels in the cornea? No, there are no blood vessels anywhere in the cornea
What innervates the whole layer of the cornea? Cranial nerve
What kind of cells are present in the substantia propia? small keratin looking cells
True or False: The outer epithelium constantly sheds its outer surface cells and new ones are born True
True or False: Bowman's membrane can regenerate False
What are the bundles glued together by in the stroma of the cornea? Mucopolysaccharide matrix which consists of chondrotin sulphate A, keratosulfate and hylaruronic caid
True or False: Descement's membrane can regenerate True, the bottom layer is atypical collagen
What is the role of the corneal endothelium layer? Bring nutrients from the back of the cornea since there are no blood vessels. they use channels called aquaporin channels
What is kept throughout the stroma through the sulfated mucopolysaccharides? Water so that is kept clear
What is the name of the nerve that innervates the cornea? Trigeminal nerve
How much more powerful is the cornea than the lens? 7x
What type of fibers does the limbus contain? Collagenous fibers called the uvueal cord at the back. this is where it allows the aqueous humerous to be filtered and the fluid is put back to the big blood vessels which are called the Sclemn canal
What type of tissue is the outside portion of the sclera? Dense fibrous regular connective tissue
What type of connective tissue does the episclera have? Loose connective tissue and elastic fibrils so it can stretch and change its shape
What does the sclera proper contain? Numerous blood vessels, desne feltwork of collagen and bundles of collagen are parallel to the surface
What are all of the structures in the brain a continuation of? The optic nerve
Name the layers of the choroid Epichoroidal layer, stroma and chriocapillar layer
Where are the large number of blood vessels located in the choroid? In the choriocapillar layer. It is the blood supply for the outer portion of the retina
What is the epichoroidal layer? Loosely arranged collagen, elastic fibrils, fibroblasts and pigments called chromatophores with melanin present in them
How does the photoreceptors get its blood supply from the chriocapillar layer? Through a tiny thin layer called the Bruch's membrane which has elastic and collagenous fibrils
Where does the secretion into the cilliary bodies come from? The posterior chamber and goes around being absorbed into the canal of Sclemm
Is the nerve supply of the cilliary body parasympathetic or sympathetic? Parasympathetic and it comes with the third nerve
What are the cillary muscles derived from? The choroid
What is the lens suspended from? Zonule fibrils or zunule cilaris
When the cicular muscles contract does the lens relax? Yes.
When the lens are spherical can you see closer or further? Closer, when flattened you can see far away
Which way does the pigmented layer face? Outward and the non-pigmented inward
Which one is more pigmented pars plana or pars plicata? pars plana
Does the pigmented or non-pigmented portion secrete the aqueous humor? The non-pigmented. the fluid comes from the plasma of blood vessels
What happens if the fluid builds up pressure? Leads to glycoma
What happens if pressure is not maintained properly? The ganglion cells in the retina begin to die and you go blind
Describe iris The color of the eye. If it is purple or pink there is no pigment present. Albinos have no pigment
What does the pupil do? It constricts the sphincter muscles, and dilates the muscles
When the pupil constricts the muscles is that parasympathetic or sympathetic? Parasympathetic (Third cranial nerve)
When the pupil dilates the muscles is that parasympathetic or sympathetic? Sympathetic from the superior cervical ganglion
What is constriction and dialation of the pupil called? Constriction: Miosis Dialation: Mydriasis
Where did the lens evolve from? Outside the capsular anterior epithelial single cells
Are there rods in the fovea? No there are only cones
Do amacrine cells have axons? No
Describe Muller cells The biggest supporting glia, and their processes go up to create this external limiting membrane
True or False: The cones can synapse more than once True
When do the rods shed? At the onset of light
Is it normal for photorecptors to shed? Yes, and their outer segments get phagocytized by the neighboring pigmented epithelial cells
What happens if the shedding stops? You end up with a disease like retinis pigmentosa



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