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Respiratory System S

Respiratory system

True or False: At some point the vasculature directly interacts with air False. At no point does the vasculature directly interact with the air
What is the part called that does not actually do respiration? conducting airway
Where does the actual respiration occur? Alveolar structures
What is the role of hair in our nostrils? To protect us
What types of cells are present where the air is coming in? Stratified squamous from the nasal cavity to the larynx
What do we have to do with the air coming in? Humidify it and warm it
What does the conducting part of the respiratory system do? Conditioning the air to get the moisture level up
Does respiratory epithelium have to do with respiration? No. It has to do with conditioning the air
What is olfactory epithelium? It is specialized differentiated tissue that is in the nasal cavity
What do bones form in the nasal cavity? Conchae or turbinates. As you suck in air it flows over these conchae and gives it time to warm up
Describe the look of respiratory epithelium It has goblet cells and a ciliated surface
Is there an abrupt change fromt he respiratory to the olfactory epithelium? Yes
What are the very specialized sensory cells called in the olfactory epithelium? Bi-polar neuron
Describe the role of bi-polar neuron It connects the signals to nerve bundles of the olfactory nerve which will go directly to the brain. Has processes that have receptors for various odorants
Desribe Bowman's glands Release a very serous-like secretion into the luminal space that is important for how the olfactory epithelium works
Describe sustenticular cells of the olfactory epithelium Nutritional support to the bi-polar neuron
Describe the basal cells It is columnar epithelium. Mixture of different types of cells. It functions as a stem cell to the sustenticular supporting cells
Describe Brush cells type of sensory cell, very thin columnar cell that has a rigid sensory process on top. It is sensitive to mechanical and chemical perturbation, sensing the flow and movement of things across the surface
Describe the dendritic side of the olfactory cell On the surface of the lumen of nasal cavity that has 9+2 arrangement but is missing dynein so it is non-motile cilia
Are the neurons regenerating in the nasal cavity? Yes. constantly regenerating
What is one of the first things you notice in a neurodegenerative disease like alzheimers or parkinsons? Sense of smell
What type of fluid does Bowman's gland secrete across the membrane? Proteinaceous/ aueaous fluid. It is humidfying the air and washing the surface where the odor is. It dribbles out of our nose or we swallow it
What do microvilli due to the fluid? Absorbs the fluid to keep the flow moving
Name the 2 ways air is coming into the larynx Through the epiglotis through our mouth and through the nasal cavity
What types of cells are present in the larynx? Stratified squamous. Taste buds sit in the stratified squamous
How does the epithelium change from the larynx to the trachea over a wide range? From straified squamous to psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium aka respiratory epithelium
What can cause squamous carcinomas? When they keep changing back and forth
True or False: In the trachea we see a cartiliginous ring True. Hyaline cartilage
What is at the end of each carilaginous ring? Smooth trachealis muscle
Why do the ring keep an open space? So air can come in and waste and carbon dioxide can leave
What is in between the submucosa and ring? Adventia
What makes up the mucosa? The lamina propria and epithelium
What border is between the mucosa and submucosa? Elastic lamina
In what direction does the cilia in the repirator epithelium in the trachea or bronchi beat? In one direction to drive the mucus up so it can be swallowed or spit out
In what direction does the cilia in the respiratory epithelium in the nasal cavity beat? Down
What happens if the cilia synchrony goes out? We build up huge mucus deposits in our lungs and have to cough it up leading back to straified squamous
True or False: All epithelial cells contain tight junctions True. Ex. Psuedostrafied ciliated columnar, goblet cells, basal cells, brush cells and smal granular cells
Describe small granular cells Contain traditional types of neurotransmitters and are connected to the neuronal system. Their secretory side is the basal side into the vasculature in the lamina propria. called kulchitsky cell. Known to give rise to tumors
When does the respiratory epithelium stop When we get to the bronchioles
What are Clara cells? cuboidal cells that are secretory cells but don't secrete mucus
What do Clara cells secrete? Lipoprotein and its a merocrine secretion. the protein attaches to the membrane and the lipid part is helping keep the airways from sticking to each other. Secrete bacterial killing proteins
Desribe the respiratory bronchiole Where there is outcropping of developing alveoli
is there respiration in the cuboidal part of the bronchiole? No. In the thin outcroppings there is
Desribe Type II alveolar cells cuboidal. produces surfactant. secretes proteins that kill bacteria. Is a stem cell for Type I
Decribe type I alveolar/pneumocyte cells Where respiration takes place. very thin. creates a thin layer so gas exchange can occur
What is on top of the alveolar cells? Phospholipid bilayer that drops the surface tension so the solubility of oxygen and other gases is much lower and more efficient



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