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Lymphoid 1

Lymphoid Tissue 1

Breifly describe lymphoid tissue It is extracellular tissue fluid that is collected and brought back into the venous circulation through the lymphatics
What does the spleen filter? blood
What do lymph nodes filter? Lymph
What does humoral immunity mean? It means that it deals with the humors which are the fluid parts of the body. Phlegm, bile and blood. Within the blood there are soluble factors that will aid in destruction and those factors are antibodies
What cells are responsible for humoral immunity? B cells
Where do B cells mature? They fully mature in the bone marrow and make their way to secondary lymphoid tissue
What happens to B cells in the secondary lymphoid tissue? That is the site where B cells come in contact with an antigen
What do B cells differentiate into? Into a effector cell, a plasma cell and that will lead to the release of antibodies important for killing
What cells are responsible for cellular immunity? T cells
True or False: Other classes of T cells are responsible for humoral response as well True
Where do T cells start out and where do they go to mature? They start out in the bone marrow and they mature in the thymus
Describe an example of how c-kit stem cells are indicative of lymphocytes C-kit cells start to differentiate from a pluripotent cell to multipotent stem cells and you lose the c-kit marker and start picking up other markers
What is the site of initial development? Primary lymphoid tissue
What does primary lymphoid contain? Contains the stromal cells that provide the environment for stem cell proliferation and differentiation, Bone marrow and thymus
What is the role of seconday lymphoid organs/tissues? Site of effector cells (plasma cells) architecture provides for effiecient immune system (anitbodies)
Name examples of secondary organs/tissues Lymph nodes, spleen, Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), tonsils
True or False: Tonsils are capsulated lymph tissue False. They are unencapsulated
True or False: GALT and MALT are unencapsulated True
True or False: Lymph nodes, spleen and thymus all have capsules True
What do the capsule provide? A nice rigid structure and you'll have invagination of that connective tissue froming trabeculae
Why does the spleen have vasculature going in and leaving? Because it filters blood
Does the spleen have afferent lymph vessels? No, but it has efferent lymph nodes because it does not filter lymph itself
Do lymph nodes have a closed circulation? Yes, it has some type of vasculature coming in and out but it is closed circulation
True or False: Lymph vessels have similar archietecture to artery and veins True. They have tunica intima, tunica media and advenitia
True or False: Lymph nodes have blind-end lymph vessels which are very thin walled True
Do lymph vessels have valves? Yes, but no extensive muscle wall It gets pulses from teh muscles within the legs allowing lymph to be driven upwards
Describe the lymph node structure They are attached in series. Central core is known as the medulla surrounded by cortex. Reticular cells that send out little processes
What type of collagen do reticular cells send out in lymph nodes? Type 3 collagen
Describe the travel of lymph Through the cortex, to medulla to efferent vessel
What type of capsule does lymph have? A thin dense irregular connective tissue capsule of Type I collagen. Also has a sub-capsule sinus
What type of collagen is the trabeculae? Type I collagen
What type of cells line the sinus in the lymph Endothelial cells
What happens if a foreign antigen is introduced in lymph nodes? It will be phagocytized by certain cell, processed and initiate the differentiation of B cells towards plasma cells
How do macrophages participate in the lymph node when a foreign antigen is introduced? They send out little processes through the lining to capture foreign antigens
Describe the initiation stages of B cell activation to plasma cells Phagocytose an antigen. Presenting of an antigen to CD4+. Dendritic processes expose MHCII complex, it is recognized by receptors on CD4+ cells. CD4+ is activated and B cells are activated
Describe the proliferation and differentiation stage B cell is activated and memory cells and then plasma cell is made. Secondary follicle where immune response is going on
Describe a primary follicle B cell rich zone that is a non-immune region; resting follicle
Define mantle zone The non-proliferating or slowly proliferating B cells; secondary follicle. the clearing zone is the germinal center: where you have initaion and differentiation towards plasma cells
What are the cells called in the zone of proliferation? Centroblasts
Where is the B cell rich zone in the lymph node? In the outer cortex
Where is the T cell rich zone in the lymph node? In the deep cortex
What brings the antigen in? Macrophages and dendritic cells sending processes into the sinus
Describe the reaction locations in lymph nodes Starts in the deep cortex, those activated B cells will migrate to the b cell rich zone, these follicles will differentiate towards plasma cells
Where is the connection between arterial and venous system located? In the deep cortex. It is an very importatn area for bringing naive lymphocytes into a lymph node
What happens once the plasmoblasts are made? They will escape the follicle and either sit in the medulla and finish the differentiation process into plasma cells or jump to efferent vessels and go to circulation to go to bone marrow or mammary glands
Describe the activation of B cells In T cell rich zone a foreign particle gets phagocytosed by a dendritic cell and activated T -cell will actiavte B cell. Primary to secondary follicle
Summarize B cells after they mature They go to sites like spleen, lymph nodes or unencapsulated lymph tissue, activated into centroblasts, then if selected becomes a centrocyte then plasmoblast
What is a mantle cell lymphoma? When the mantle region has begun to proliferate uncontrollably. It proliferates slowly so it is hard to treat
What is a large B-mantle cell lymphoma? If the centroblasts become uncontrolled with respect to the cell cycle. It is treatable with chemotherapy
what is follicular lymphoma? With a centrocyte, you get a BCL-2 defect so you don't have BCL-2
What is a mulitple myeloma? where plasma cells are undergoing division
What drug targets CD20+ cells in lymphomas? Rituximab
Desribe plasma cells Eccentrically placed nucleus and is heterochromatic. cytoplasm is full of rough ER because its job is to strictly make antibodies
What specialized endothelial lining is in the deep cortex of the lymph node? HEV. Has a cuboidal epithelial lining. Expresses certain sugar groups that attracts naive lymphocytes. HEV exist where you need to allow naive lymphocytes to get in
Does the spleen have HEV? No because it has open circulation
What do macrophages do in the spleen? They remove aged erythrocytes and aged platelets. It is the site of filtering the blood of bacterial infections
Does the spleen have a capsule? Yes but no cortex and medulla
Describe white pulp of the spleen it is the site of the lymphocytes. Follicle, marginal zones and PALs are all white pulp
Desribe red pulp Around white pulp. It has sinuses known as splenic sinuses.
Desribe splenic sinuses It has discontinous endothelial lining, blood can percolate right into the parenchyma (open circulation). Has splenic cords or cords of Billroth. Between sinuses there is red pulp
What happens when blood is filtered in the spleen? Be captured adn if there's a foreign antigen it will cause a primary follicle to become a secondary follicle
Describe the central artery It is a B cell rich zone covered with a sheath of T cells. It is eccentrically placed relative to the follicle
What are T cell rich zones known as PALs (Periarterial lymphatic sheath)
Describe places with discontinous endothelial lining Spleen, Liver and Bone marrow



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