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BioChem Pershini

Exam 2

What are lipids? a substance that is soluble in the chloroform or methanol due to their hydrophobic character
What are fatty acids? carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon or aliphatic side groups
What two carbon species are the most common in biological systems? C16 and C18
In double bonds, polyunsaturated fatty acids double bonds are? not conjugated and are always cis
16:0 palmitic acid, hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH
18:0 stearic acid, octadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)16COOH
16:1n-7 palmitoleic acid, 9-hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
18:1n-9 oleic acid, 9-octadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
18:2n-6 linoleic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)2(CH2)6COOH
18:3n-3 alpha linoliec acid, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, CH3CH2(CH=CHCH2)3(CH2)6COOH
18:3n-6 lambda linoliec acid, 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)3(CH2)3COOH
20:4n-6 arachinidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid, CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)4(CH2)2COOH
What are triglycerides? triacylglycerols or fatty aids triesters that usually contain two or three different fatty acids
How do fats(solids) and oils(liquids) differ? whether or not there melting point is below room temperature
-CH2CH2NH3+ phosphatidylethanolamine
-CH2CH2N(CH3)3+ phosphatidylcholine
-CH2CH(NH3+)COO- phosphatidylserine
phosphatidylinositol a six ring structure with OH groups as follows: C1 up, C2, down, C3 up, C4 up, C5up, C6 down
What is a glycerophospholipid? a major constituent of biological membranes derived fronm glycerol-3-phosphate by esterification at C1 and C2
What is a sphingolipid? a major membrane bilayer component based on C18 amino alcohol sphingosine. Sphingolipids have two saturated aliphatic tails; one from the fatty acid substituent and one from the sphingosine.
What are ceramides? an N-acetyl fatty acid derivatives that are the parent compound of all other sphingolipids?
What are neutral glycosphingolipids? B-O-glycosidic linkage cerebrosides and globosides
What is a cerebroside? contain one sugar usually glucose or galactose
What is a globoside? contain more than one sugar e.g. lactosyl ceraminde
What are charged Glycosphingolipids? gangliosides contain more than one sugar plus one or more sialic acid
What is responsible for the kink in sphingosine? The double bond
What are the sugars in GM3 gangliosides? D-Galactose and D-Glucose
What are the sugars in GM2 gangliosides? N-Acetyl-D-Galactosamine, D-Galactose and D-Glucose
What are the sugars in GM1 gangliosides? D-Galactose, N-Acetyl-D-Galactosamine, D-Galactose and D-Glucose
Explain the bilayer formation? a consequence of the amphiphathic natures of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids (60-80 A thick)
Transverse VS. Lateral Diffusion Transverse is very rare with a t1/2 of several days, lateral diffusion is very rapid, thus the lipid bilayer is considered a two-dimensional fluid
Why is the hydrophobic interior of a bilayer in constant motion? due to the rotations about C-C bonds in the aliphatic tails
Bilayer structure is temperature dependent below transition temperatures, become solids, above that temperature , it becomes liquid crystal. temperature increases with the length and degree of saturation of the fatty acid chains
How do these lipids rafts contribute to the gel-like state of the membrane in these regions? Sphingolipids have two alipathic tails. this raises the transition temperature for the lipid rafts so they are in a gel-like state rather than a liquid crystal state.
Created by: umkcnerd