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Biochem Vitamins

VitaminPart of What Coenzyme(s)?Type of Coenzyme/FunctionSource in DietDeficiency + Symptoms
Thiamine TPP (Thiamine PyroPhosphate) decarboxylase -oxidative and non-oxidative DECARBOXYLATIONS -remove CO2 or HCO3- cereals, whole grains, meats, legumes Beriberi: weight loss, weakness, swelling (wet = circ problems; dry = extremity paralysis)
Lipoic Acid used with TPP DECARBOXYLASE -oxidative decarboxylations (does ox/red for TPP, 2H+/2e-) -ALSO ACYL GROUP CARRIER (forms thioester with carboxyl) green leafy vegetables and red meats hard to establish deficiency
Pantothenic Acid CoA (CoASH, Coenzyme A) ACYL CARRIER (BEST) -acyl/acid transfers (NEEDS ATP) fucking everywhere! hard to establish deficiency
Pyridoxine (B6, PYRIDOXAL!) PLP transaminase -transfers amine groups -SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS -acts as prosthetic group with LYSINE ?? hard to establish deficiency BUT... -OD = neuro problems -deficiency = skin dryness/rash -NOTE: pts taking isoniazid/penicillamine/levodopa -SHIFF BASES
Biotin ALWAYS A PROSTHETIC GROUP CARBOXYLASE -addition of CO2 or bicarb -energy from ATP -prosthetic group w/ lysine abundant in almost all foods hard to establish deficiency BUT -patients who eat lots of raw egg whites (bodybuilders)
Folic Acid THF/THFA -transfer of carbon units EXCEPT carboxyls -methyl, methylene, formyl, formimino, methenyl -PURINE/PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES -conversion of U->T green vegetables, grains, legumes hard to establish deficiency -SUPPLEMENTED in pregnant women
Cobalamin (B12) none RECYCLING OF THF +transfer of methyl groups -synthesis of DNA, prod RBC, fatty acid metabolism, neuron function ? ?
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C!) none (derivative of glucose) ? fruits and vegetables SCURVY
Retinol (Vitamin A, fat-soluble) none proper eyesight, component of visual pigments in retina meat, animal oils, carrots, mangos "night blindness" dry, flaky skin -OD = blurred vision, dizziness, HA
Calciferols (Vitamin D, fat-soluble) none absorption of calcium phosphate (BONES) fish and fish oils, ADDED TO MILK rickets -softening and bowing of weight-carrying bones -(SYNTHESIZED IN SKIN WITH SUNLIGHT)
Tocopherols (Vitamin E, fat-soluble) none antioxidant!! -neutralization of free radicals wheat germ and nuts hard to establish deficiency -ODs rare
Vitamin K (for the German "Koagulation") none enzymes in the clotting cascade (calcium binding) green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils impaired blood clot formation -no documented ODs
Niacin (Nicotinamide/Nicotinic Acid) NAD+/NADH (catabolism, oxidation) NADP+/NADPH (anabolism, reduction) dehydrogenase (ox/red) OF FUNCTIONAL GROUPS "hydride carriers" (H-) meat, nuts, bran Pellagra: diarrhea, skin ulcers, mental changes/disorders
Riboflavin FAD/FADH2 FMN/FMNH2 (ox/red) of alkanes --> alkenes! (free radical transfer, 2H+ and 2e-) -oxidative pathways of carbs and fats in almost all foods ("ubiquitous") hard to establish deficiency
Created by: ianray42
 

 



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