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History 104 Test 1

The United States from 1865 to the Present study questions for first test.

Who was the president after Lincoln? Andrew Johnson
Era after the Civil War? Reconstruction
What is sharecropping? system where former slaves worked for part of the crop
What Federal Agency was created in 1865 to supervise newly freed people? Freedmen’s Bureau
What was the “Presidential Reconstruction?” Implemented by Andrew Johnson it was a way for former confederates to take an oath of loyalty to the union and restore political and civil rights. (more than 7,000 individual pardons were made by 1886)
What laws were passed to define slavery and control the black population? By who? Black Codes passed by colonial assemblies
What organization was founded in 1866 to terrorize blacks and revive in 1915 to enforce values of rural prohibitionist America? Who did they mainly effect? Ku Klux Klan, effected African Americans mainly but also Jewish and Catholics or whites supporting any of these
What did president Johnson do that lead to his impeachment? He violated the tenure of office act by removing a secretary of war Edwin Stanton from office
What were white northerners who came South supporting “radical reconstruction” and white southern republicans called? Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
What major land purchase didn’t receive much attention due to Johnson’s impeachment? The Alaska Purchase
Who got elected in 1868, following Johnson’s Impeachment? Ulysses S. Grant
What did the 15th Amendment do and when was it approved and added? It took away voting restriction due to race, color, or previous condition of servitude. It was approved Feb 1869 and added in 1870
List two events that caused trouble for Grant’s first administration? The gold scandal and the Senate refused a treaty with Spain
Describe key developments of the democratic party during Grant’s first term? Democrats regained leadership in some states signaling a comeback for the party
What 1872 organization wasn’t content with Grant’s policies during his first administration? Liberal Republicans
What was the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871? It outlawed conspiracies to deprive voters of their civil rights
What 2 transcontinental railroads laid tracks in the 1860s? When and where did they meet? Union Pacific and Central Pacific met in Promontory, Utah May 10, 1869
What group formed to press the case of farmers during this time? The Patrons of Husbandry “the Grange” 1867
When farmers started moving West into Native American territory what government policy was pursued? The “peace policy” supported by $2 million from Congress which pushed Native Americans onto reservations
What animal was almost killed to extinction, devastating Native Americans? The buffalo
Who led the Red River War that was over Native American’s perusing their lifestyles? Cheyenne, Kiowas, and Comanches
Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull defended what attack? Custer’s Last Stand at Little Big Horn “Greasy Grass”
What two suffragist groups emerged at the Equal Rights Association in May 1869? Who were they led by? The National Women Suffrage Association led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the American Woman Suffrage Association led by Lucy Stone and Alice Stone Blackwell
First woman to receive a B. A. and Ph. D? M. Cary Thomas
In the case of Minor v. Happersett (1875) what was ruled? Suffurage wasn’t one of the rights of citizenship and women couldn’t vote
What was Stanton’s opinion of the capacity of black men to use the vote wisely? She didn’t trust them as they were degraded and oppressed themselves
How did Douglass see the issue as between black suffrage and votes for women? Women should be able to vote, but black men suffrage was a more pressing issue since they were loathed and women loved
What nineteenth century reform movement encouraged the reduction or elimination of alcoholic beverage consumption? Temperance movement
What invention gave some women new jobs they could do? The type-writer
Who was Grants oppenent in the 1872 election? Horace Greeley
What was the first scandal during Grants second term? Crédit Mobilier giving lawmakers “bribes”
What last minute deal gave senators and representatives a retroactive pay increase? The “Salary Grab” scandal
What Mark Twain book described the spirit of the ear and later labeled it? The Gilded Age
What was the “Crime of 1873?” The treasury departments decision to end the coinage of silver
In 1875 how did Congress and the president respond to the economic crisis? They did nothing
How did the decline of reconstruction in the late 1870s effect the blacks participation in elected positions? It declined
List 3 reasons the democrats were able to regain control of the house of representatives in 1879? Hard economic times, low crop prices, and factory workers wanted more jobs
Who read the “Women’s Declaration of Independence” in response to women being misrepresented at the world fair? Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Who ran for the presidency in 1876, which person won? Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes (Hayes won)
Why was the election of 1876 for the nineteenth president the most fiercely disputed in history? Because Samuel Tilden fell one vote shy of the electoral votes needed to win the election. The House and Senate were controlled by the separate parties but had to work together to determine who would win the election
What did the democrats receive in the compromise of 1877 that led to Hayes being names president? They received the guarantee that Reconstruction would end
How did the failure of reconstruction effect the plight of African Americans? Economic problems led to less emphasis being placed on justice and equality for former slaves
When did reconstruction end? After the 1876 election
A key theme in the South that the regions should welcome industrialization and economic expansion was embodied in what phrase? “The New South”
What invention was made during the 1880s when manufacturing capacity was on the rise? Who made it? James Buchanan Duke invented practical cigarette making machine
When cotton prices fell southern states passed what to safeguard merchant’s investments? What did they do? Crop Lien Laws that gave merchants a right to crops if the farmer couldn’t pay his debt. Thus sharecroppers weren’t receiving crop and were as close to slavery as the law would allow
What did the Supreme Court rule in the Civil Rights cases of 1883? What effect did it have on African Americans? Under the 14th amendment Congress could only prohibit state actions that violated civil rights. In souther states they chose to encourage racial segregation
What were the roughly 20,000 blacks who were coming out of bondage as the children of Israel in Exodus had, called? Where did they arrive? Exodusters arrived in Kansas
What Native American religious movement made whites apprehensive? Ghost Dance believed to make dead Indians reborn and the whites to vanish for all time
When the army moved against the Sioux December 1890 what was the last chapter of the Indian wars? The Battle of Wounded Knee fought on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota
Las Gorras Blances (the White Caps) was an organization formed by Mexican Americans over what? Communal lands all ranchers shared being divided up, sold, and fenced by Anglo ranchers
What act barred Chinese entry to the United States for initially ten, and then extended to 20, years? The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
With tacit approval of the North, the South devised segregation laws that led to what? Separate and shabbier facilities from Whites and unfair treatment in politics or courtrooms. The constitutional rights of the 14th and 15th amendments only existed on paper for most blacks
Who argued that African Americans should emphasis hard work and personal development rather than rebel against their condition? Booker T. Washington
What was the Atlanta Compromise of 1895 at the Cotton States and International Exposition of Atlanta? Speech by Booker T. Washington outlining a program for African American self-help, industrial education, and acceptance of white supremacy
Homer A. Plessy, 1/8 black, challenged an 1890 law specifying blacks rode in separate railroad cars. What did this lead to? Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) a case that made it to the Supreme Court. They ruled the Justices upheld Louisiana State Law
What did the railroads establish in 1883? What unification was implemented? Four time zones across the country and a standard gauge for all tracks
What was the Congressional legislation in 1887 that was set up to supervise and regulate the nations railroads? Interstate Commerce Act, 1887
What did George Pullman pioneer? The Sleeping Car
To assist the railroads what did federal, state, and local governments offer? Federal offered 130 million acres (land grants), state & local 44 million acres (land grants). As well as loans, bonds, and tax reductions from federal and state. This was all almost worth $500 million
What were the 4 transcontinental rail lines of 1880? Union Pacific, Central Pacific, Northern Pacific, and Southern Pacific
What were robber barons? Railroad industry leaders such as Cornelius Vanderbelt and Jay Gould who became known for their ruthless methods against competitors
What illegal “secret procedures” did railroads use to try to survive and beat competition? Lure customers with reduced prices and/or offer rebates to a favored shipper
There were 28 such agencies by 1896? Regulatory Commission
What decision was made in Munn v. Illinois in 1887? The state could establish a commission to regulate railroad rates
Supreme Court ruled that enforcement of the Illinois law infringed on interstate commerce in what case? Wabash, St Louis, and Pacific Company Railroad v. Illinois
During 1877 what tribe led by Chief Joseph resisted attempts to move them to a reservation by battling for over 4 months with 650 members trying to get to Canada? Nez Perce Tribe from Oregon, they didn’t reach safety and were forced to reservations
What famous Apache Chief in New Mexico and a small group of followers left their reservations in 1881 and raided across the southwest and ultimately in September 1886 surrendered and was exiled to Florida? Geronimo
What organization lobbied policies for Native Americans to be assimilated into white society? Indian Rights Association
What book publicized the plight of the Native Americans? A Century of Dishonor (1881)
What was the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 passed by Congress? Distributed land to Native Americans in 160 acre farms on reservations so that eventually it could be sold to whites after 25yrs of use
In September 1885 tension between residents of Rock Springs, Wyoming and Asian laborers led to what? A violent confrontation leading to an estimated 28 dead
What did Cowboys do and who usually took the job? Worked 14hr days riding the line, tending sick cattle, mending fences, and lots of physical labor in harsh environments. Mant Cowboys were African American, Hispanic, or Native Americans
By the 1900s the ranchers had the competition of what? Public land they could use and eventually sell
The Homestead Act of 1862 gave farmers what? Public land they could use and eventually sell
The Timber and Stone Act of 1878 permitted settlers to acquire up to 160 acres at $2.50 per acre but caused what exploitations? Lumber companies used false entries to accumulate and get titles to valuable timber holdings
Joseph Glidden devised a practical form of what? Who developed machines to start producing it? Barbed Wire in 1873 and the Washburn and Moen Company in Massachusetts
What was the most practiced technique of farming that cultivated using the land retained water after rainfall? Dry farming
In 1889 and 1890 what territories were admitted to the Union as states? The Dakotas, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming
Who was John D. Rockefeller of Standard Oil? Key figure in the development of the oil industry and the growth of large corporations
How did Rockefeller monopolize the oil industry? Using horizontal integration or by taking over competition to achieve control. He used rebates, secret payments, and price cuts.
Who used an old legal barrier for his oil company in 1882 to overcome legal issue they had? Rockefeller who used “the trust”
What was the later enacted and more efficient than the trust approach? “Holding Company” law
Who was a famous Scottish businessman who rose from telegraph clerk to private secretary of the Pennsylvania Railroad? What did he say? Andrew Carnegie, “Put all your good eggs in one basket, and then watch the basket.”
Carnegie turned to the steel industry in 1873 and eventually looked to achieve what? Vertical integration, or the procedure where a company gains control of all phases of production related to it’s products
List four inventions between 1870-1890 and their dates. Phonograph (1877), cash register (1879), the linotype newspaper publishing (1886), and the kodak camera (1888)
Who invented the telephone in 1876? Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Thomas A. Watson
What did Thomas Alva Edison, “the Wizard of Menlo Park,” do? Patented over 1,000 inventions including the phonograph and the carbon filament incandescent lamp (1979) “electric light”
Who discovered how to use transformers to render electricity safe where the consumer needed it? Edison’s business rival George Westinghouse
What labor increased during the 1880s? Women and Children under the age of sixteen
During the 1860s and the 1870s what began to form? Organized Unions
Who were the Knights of Labor and what set them apart from other Unions? 19th century labor organization that combined fraternal ritual and the language of Christianity as well as a belief in the social equality of all citizens. They included women and blacks
What riot occurred on May 4, 1886 when workmen gathered to protest police conduct during a strike at a factory of the McCormick Company? The Haymarket Riot
What organization did Samuel Gompers start with others unions that had some 150,000 members? American Federation of Labor (AFL)
What Atlanta druggist created a new drink in 1886 using the syrup from a cola nut mixed with carbonated water? What did he call it? John Pemberton and he called it “Coca Coke”
Who wrote the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and captured the era in his literature? Samuel L. Clemens
What was the symbol of the era and work of the french sculptor, FrÉdEric-Auguste Bartholdi? When and where was it erected? The Statue of Liberty erected Oct. 28, 1886 on Bedloe’s Island, now Liberty Island
What were the most prominent national issues during 1877-1887 in the political life? Kind of money American’s used, how the government raised revenue and who served in government itself
To what American values did each of the speakers, William McKinley and D.H. Chamberlain 1888, appeal? McKinley was for American industry, American workmen/wages/homes and Chamberlain was for foreign goods and imports, he said without it was an impoverished nation
Who did Republicans have in office in the late 1870s? Rutherford B. Hayes
Who ran for office after Hayes? Who won? Republicans ran James A. Garfield of Ohio and Chester Alan Arthur of New York. Democrats ran Winfield Scott Hancock. Garfield Won
What happened July 2, 1881 and then later on September 19, 1881? As assassin shot Garfield who later died and Arthur became president
What did Congress pass during Arthur’s single term? What did it do? The Pendeton Act (1883) created a civil service system, regulated campaign finance, and limited assessing campaign contributions from federal employers
Who ran in the 1884 election? Who won and what did it end? James G. Blaine of Maine for Republicans and Grover Cleveland, Governor of NY who won ending 24 years of republicans power. On March 4, 1885 he took office
Who became president in between Grover Clevelands 1st and 2nd term? Benjamin Harrison 23rd president
What Act officially stripped Native Americans of their rights? The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
What did president Harris announce that allowed whites to essentially take over Native American land starting April 22, 1889? Who settled it? Unoccupied land could be settled (including Native American) and “Sooners” and “Boomers” took it over
What settlement house was founded in Chicago 1889 to help solve the troubling problems of city life? By who? Hull House founded by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr
What did horse cars give way to? Electric street cars and/or subways
Who developed techniques that allowed builders to surpass the then 5-10 story structures to skyscrapers of 20-40 stories or more? Louis Sullivan of Chicago
What became a popular but uncomfortable way of living for poor city residents? Apartments or tenement houses as they were called
Where did new coming immigrants initially enter? When did this change and where was it moved? New York Harbor and processed at Castle Garden at the Battery in Lower Manhattan. In 1890 this was closed due to inadequate space and equipment and moved to Ellis Island
With the arrival of many “new immigrants” from Southern and Eastern europe, what major issue arose causing old immigrants to be unsettled? Development of vibrant ethnic communities sticking to their roots and not trying to join the “american” way. Building new religious buildings, schools, neighborhoods, etc.
What were “Boss Politics?” Urban “political machines” that relied on the votes of the large inner-city population. The flow of money was usually based on corruption
What was the most notorious political machine of the era in the late 1860s of NY and tied to the democratic organization known as Tammany Hall? The “Tweed Ring” connected to William Megear Tweed
What “battle” was the last chapter in Indian wars and what occurred? The Battle of Wounded Knee (1890) fought on Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota. It was essentially an Indian massacre killing 146 and wounding 51. Whites had 25 killed and 39 wounded
The first intercollegiate football game occurred between who? Princeton and Rutgers in 1869
Who was the most famous boxing champion in the late 19th century? John L. Sullivan an Irish American
Who wrote Looking Backward 2000-1887 in 1888? Reporter and novelist Edward Bellamy
What organization was formed by women to help in the reform effort? Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
What association was formed in 1890 through the efforts of Lucy Stone Blackwell? Who was the first president? National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Who was our expansionest leader and the author of, The Influence of Seapower on History, 1660-1783? Captain Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy
List 3 key measures in the late 1880s and early 1890s? McKinley Tariff Act, the Sherman Antitrust Act, and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act
What was the Sherman Antitrust Act? Federal legislation designed to curb the growth of large monopolistic corporations
What started as an angry group of farmers in Texas during the 1880s and then spread across the South and West? The Farmers Alliance and Industrial Union
When southern and western farmers looked towards cooperative action who was a leader in the efforts? Charles Macune, who became president of the Texas alliance in 1886
What brief alliance was formed between white and black farmers until blacks asked for a raise? When did it form and when did it end? The Colored Farmers National Alliance and Cooperative Union in 1886 it formed and 1891 it ended
In December 1889 what was the most important policy proposal of the farmers conference? Who proposed it? The Subtreasury plan by Charles Macune
In February 1892 what third party was created? The Populists or the People’s Party
What views did the Populists have? Planks endorsing the subtreasury, free coinage of silver, and other reforms
What was the Homestead strike of 1892? Labor uprising of workers at a steel plant in Homestead, Pennsylvania, put down by military forces
What “frontier thesis” by Frederick Jackson Turner became a powerful and controversial explanation of how the nation had developed? “The Significance of the Frontier in American History”
In 1893 what event in Chicago celebrated the arrival of Columbus in “the New World” 400 years earlier? The Worlds Columbian Exposition
In May 1893 the weakend economy did what? Collapsed into the panic at 1893
What was signed into law on November 1, 1893 after causing a democratic uproar? A bill repealing the Sherman Act passed with the aid of republican votes
What was the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act passed by Congress in August 1894? Reduced rates on wool, copper, and lumber. It also raised duties on many other items and added a modest tax on personal incomes
On May 1, 1894 who reached Capitol Hill and was intercepted and clubbed by police? Coxey, his son “Legal Tender Coxey,” and 300 supporters
What was the Pullman strike of 1894 involving 125,000 men representing 20 railroads? Strike by railroad workers not to use pullman’s cars and it caused major unrest, mobs, and riots
What occurred during the congressional elections of 1894? Democrats lost 113 seats in the largest transfer of power from one party to another within the 2 party system
With unemployment high and wages low what happened in the 1890s? An increase in women and children workers once again
What was ruled in the case of U.S. vs. E.C. Knight 1895? The Sherman Antitrust Act applied only to monopolies of interstate commerce and not to those solely of manufacturing
Who was an African American journalist and leader of an anti-lynching campaign? Ida B. Wells-Barnett
What feminist who advocated that women should seek economic independency, wrote Women and Economics (1898)? Charlotte Perkins Gillman
What Union temporarily united black and white women until the end of the 1890s when deteriorating relations made it politically impossible to do so? Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
What did William T. Stead write after seeing the slums of Chicago when he visited for the Columbian Exposition in 1893? If Christ Came to Chicago in 1894
What did William T. Stead’s exposure of urban corruption and decadence lead to? What were its goals? Chicago Civic Federation, sought to control gambling, clean slums, and promote fair rates for public transportation and services
When was the first International American Conference in Washington? What secretary of state sent out the invites to 19 nations? October 2, 1889 and James G. Blaine
What Act did Blaine use to help negotiate treaties with South American Countries? What did the act say? McKinley Tariff Act of 1890 stated a number of products including sugar, molasses, coffee, and tea could get imposed tariffs by the president it also made them duty-free otherwise
Who’s resistance in Hawaii to forestall the end of their independence led to the Cleveland administration to block Hawaiian annexation for most of the 1890s? Queen Liliuokalani
What philosopher believed that truth is more than an abstract concept? What explanation did he come up with for what political and legal reformers were trying to do? William James of Harvard University and pragmatism
What did University of Chicago teacher and philosopher, John Dewey, write about in The School and Society (1899)? Schools should prepare students to live in a complex industrial world and instill democratic values as well as usable skills
Who was Stephen Crane and what did he write? What did it depict? American naturalist writer, and author of Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893) depicting how the city exploited and destroyed a girl and author of The Red Badge of Courage (1895)
What was the most dangerous foreign policy issue that confronted Grover Cleveland? It stemmed from the revolution Cubans launched against Spanish rule and had to do with the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act which had increased import duties on Cuban sugar
What was “yellow journalism” and what publisher of The New York Morning Journal was one of the most celebrated publishers of this? A type of journalism that stressed lurid and sensational news to boost circulation and William Randolph Hearst
Who defeated Cleveland to win the 1896 election? William McKinley. “Advance Agent of Prosperity” and the first modern president
What speech given at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago, July 1896, became a classic moment in American political oratory? Who gave it? “Cross of Gold,” spoken on behalf of free silver by William Jennings Bryan
Who did the democrats nominate in the 1896 election on a silver free platform and hindered Republicans? William Jennings Bryan
What was the key to the Republican campaign of the 1896 election that greatly set them apart from the democrats? McKinley stayed at home and people came to him, where as Bryan traveled to give many speeches
To monitor the situation of the Cuban rebellion, what warship was sent to Havana, Cuba? When? U.S.S Maine arrived on January 25, 1898
On Feb. 15, 1898 what killed 260 men and because of the science of the time was incorrectly assumed an attack? The explosion of the U.S.S Maine in Havana, Cuba
Following the signing of the Teller Amendment what occurred? Spain immediately broke diplomatic relations with the U.S. and declared war April 24, 1898
What did the Teller Amendment State? The U.S. did not intend to control or annex, Cuba yet Congress also declined to extend official recognition to Cuban rebels to preserve freedom of action for the U.S.
How did the Spanish-American war start for America? With a naval victory for the U.S. by commodore George Dewey and the Asiatic naval squadron on May 1, 1898 at Manila Bay in the Philippines
When was Hawaii annexed as strategic value for the U.S. in the Spanish war? July 1898
What 4 regimens of African American men seasoned in fighting Indians played a key role in the war in Spain? “Smoked Yankees”
What did the “Smoked Yankees” do to deal with scorn and segregation in the U.S. while headed to Spain? Sat wherever they liked on trains and took down “white’s only” signs that barred their presence
Following William R. Shaffers July 1, 1898 defeat of Spanish defenders at the Battle of San Juan Hill what occurred? Spain relinquished Cuba and Puerto Rico and left the fate of the Philippines to be discussed at a peace conference. This occurred August 12, 1898 and Spain didn’t like the terms
When the peace treaty with Spain was signed on Dec 10,1898 what did it entail? U.S. gained Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico but Spain received a $20 payment for what they lost
How did the Filipino’s respond to the U.S. army staying there after the treaty? They were highly unhappy and fought battles against them
What was the result of the Platt Amendment of March, 1901? It barred an independent Cuba from allying with another foreign power and the U.S. had a right to intervene. The U.S. also gained a naval base at Guantanamo in Cuba
What became a significant assertion of U.S. interest in China asking European Countries active in China to preserve trading privileges and economic rights? The Open Door Notes giving the U.S. a change to compete for markets there
With the death of McKinley’s vice president, Garrett A. Hubert, who was his running mate for the 1900 election? Theodore Roosevelt, at the time the popular young governor of New York
Who did the democrats pick to run in the 1900 election? Once again they decided on William Jennings Bryan
On May 27, 1901 what did the Supreme Court rule in the Insular Cases? The Philippines and Puerto Rice were properly possessions of the U.S. but their inhabitants had not become U.S. citizens
What happened in Buffalo, New York at McKinleys Sept. 1901 speech about free trade and reciprocal tariff treaties? Leon Czolgosz who saw the president as corrupt, he shot the president on Sept 6th leaving his vice president Theodore Roosevelt to take over
The Knights of Labor was? A labor union aimed at improving the status of industrial workers
In Chapter 17's Voices of the American Past readings, who were "The Unwanted Immigrants?" Chinese, it described how whites thought Chinese in California were ruining society
What is "Social Darwinism?" The belief that Charles Darwin's ideas such as the 'survival of the fittest' also apply to people or society. This was ideology of the late 1800s and people thought it was the natural order of things
What was Andrew Carnegie's "Gospel of Wealth?" The belief that wealthy Americans should share their wealth to improve society
In the "Sweatshop Girl" reading, what does she make/produce at work? Clothing and undergarments
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