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Biochem Stuff

function of Edman degradation sequence of amino acids (primary structure)
function of peptide bond hydrolysis determining amino acid composition of protein
function of X-ray crystallography determining secondary/tertiary/quaternary structure
ion exchange chromatography separates based on... charge
reverse phase/hydrophobic chromatography separates based on... hydrophobicity
affinity chromatography separates based on... affinity for certain ligand
gel filtration separates based on.../(prepatory or analytical?) size/molecular weight, PREPARATORY
SDS-PAGE chromatography separates based on.../(prepatory or analytical?) relative size, BEST WAY for determining molecular weight, ANALYTICAL
forces that stabilize 3D structure (5) electrostatic, H-bonding, Van der Waals forces, hydrophobic interactions, disulfide bonds (and salt bridges)
chemical instabilities of proteins (5) peptide bond hydrolysis, hydrolysis of amide sidechains (glutamine/asparagine), oxidation of sulfur-containing sidechains or conjugated sidechains, reduction of disulfide bonds, racemization of L-->D amino acids
ligands that can be attached to affinity chromatography resin substrates, coenzymes, metal ions, nucleotides, antibodies
possible causes of HYPERproteinemia (2) disease/damage to liver (hepatitis, cirrhosis), severe dehydration leading to hemoconcentration
possible causes of HYPOproteinemia (3) water intoxication (excessive water --> hemodilution), kidney malfunction, fluid loss in severe burn patients
globular proteins consist mainly of AAs with ____ sidechains small, short
fibrous proteins consist mainly of AAs with ____ sidechains long
most abundant protein in blood albumin
enzymes can be controlled by... (4) allosteric control, covalent modification (phosphorylation), proteolytic activation (zymogens), availabilty of enzyme
physical instabilities of proteins denaturation (loss of folding structure)--> change in pH, temp, ionic strength, other solute concentrations
The Michaelis-Menton Equation! V0 = Vmax * [S] / Km + [S]
LB plot (x-intercept) -(1/Km)
LB plot (slope) (Km/Vmax)
LB plot (y-intercept) (1/Vmax)
Km approximates the association-dissociation of (E, S, ES, E+P)? ES
when the BODY uses enzyme inhibition, it uses ______ inhibition allosteric
when pharmaceuticals inhibit enzymes, they (usually) use _______ inhibition competitive
the effects of COMPETITIVE inhibition on: Km, Vmax, slope of LB line Km INCREASES (LESS affinity) Vmax CONSTANT slope INCREASES
the effects of "NONCOMPETITIVE" inhibition on: Km, Vmax, slope of LB line Km CONSTANT Vmax DECREASES slope INCREASES
the effects of "UNCOMPETITIVE" inhibition on: Km, Vmax, slope of LB line Km INCREASES Vmax DECREASES slope ????
What is the major difference between coenzymes and prosthetic groups? coenzymes are NOT COVALENTLY ATTACHED, while prosthetic groups ARE COVALENTLY ATTACHED!
populations at risk for vitamin deficiencies (6) children, pregnant women, older adults, teenagers+20-somethings on low-calorie diets, smokers, and alcoholics
catabolism involves BREAKDOWN OXIDATION of fuels OXIDATIVE power REDUCED coenzymes (result) NAD+/NADH and FAD+/FADH2
anabolism involves BUILD UP REDUCTION of substrates OXIDIZED coenzymes (result) NADP+/NADPH REQUIRES ENERGY!
the most abundant protein in bones, tendons, cartilage, and skin collagen
biochemical pathways are regulated by... (4) -covalent modification (e.g. phosphorylation) -compartmentation into different cell locations -isolation to specific organs -synthesis and degradation of pathway enzymes
Created by: ianray42