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History Cards

Mr. Hardcastle's 8th Grade History Flash Cards

QuestionAnswer
Renaissance a time of increased interest in art and learning
Christopher Columbus 1492, 4 voyages, trying to find a faster way to Asia
Treaty of Tordesillas moved the line of demarcation more than 800 miles farther to the west.
Mercantilism an economic system in which nations increase their wealth and power by obtaining gold and silver and by establishing a favorable balance of trade
Amerigo Vespucci America is named after this man
John Cabot One of the first explorers to chart a northern route across the Atlantic Ocean to explore for the English
Spanish Armada a fleet of ships sent in 1588 by Phillip II, the Spanish king, to invade England and restore Roman Catholicisim-Defeated by England's ships
Middle Passage The voyage of the slave ships from Africa to the Americas, part of the triangular trade route
African Diaspora Forced removal of Africans from their homeland
Columbian Exchange The movement of living things between hemispheres (transfer of diseases, crops, animals)
Roanoke the lost colony
Joint-Stock Company companies backed by investors, people who put money into a project to earn profits
Sir Walter Raleigh soldier, statesman, and adventurer who sponsored roanoke colony
Charter a written contract
Jamestown 1607, first permanent establishment in America
John Smith "He that will not work shall not eat"
Indentured Servants men and women who could not afford the passage to the Americas. Worked for many years to earn their freedom
House of Burgesses 1619--First representative government in the American colonies
Tobacco very popular crop grown in Jamestown
John Rolfe brought tobacco to Jamestown, married Pocahontas
Bacon's Rebellion 1676--a revolt against powerful colonial authority in Jamestown by Nathaniel Bacon and a group of landless frontier settlers that resulted in the burning of Jamestown
Pilgrims Separatist group who fled from King James to seek religious freedom
Virgina Company funded the pilgrims trip to the new world
Mayflower Compact 1620-an agreement of the men aboard the mayflower created to provide laws for the colonies
Puritans left Englad to escape King James I, they wanted to "purify" the practices the church of England
Great Migration thousands of puritans migrated across the atlantic ocean to New England
"New England Way" a term used to describe the pruitans beliefs which included duty, godliness, hard work, and honesty
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut a set of laws that were established in 1639 by a Puritan congregation who had settled in the Connecticut Valley and that expanded the idea of representative government
Thomas Hooker (blank)
John Winthrop (blank)
Roger Williams founder of the Rhode Island colony
Anne Hutchinson believed that a person could worship God without the help of a church, minister, or bible
Quakers tremble or quake at the word of the Lord, lived in Rhode Island
King Philip's War a war between the Native Americans and the Puritan colonies
Salem Witchcraft Trials several village girls told stories of being bewitched and falsely accused several people, 20 were put to death
Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
New England Colonies New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island
Southern Colonies Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
William Penn large landowner in America, member of the Quakers
Royal Colony a colony ruled by governors appointed by a king
James Oglethorpe founder of Georgia as a refugee for debtors
Backcountry The Appalachian mountains west
Subsistence Farming producing just enough food for your family and a little extra to trade in town
Triangular Trade the transatlantic system of trade in which goods, including slaves, were exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America
Navigation Acts a series of laws pased by Parliament, beginning in 1651, to ensure that England made money from its colonies' trade
Smuggling importing or exporting goods illegally
Cash Crops Crops raised to be sold for money
Artisans a skilled worker, such as a weaver or a potter, who makes goods by hand; a craftsperson
Conestoga Wagon German built wagon used to carry produce to town
Overseers men hired by planters to watch over and direct the work of slaves.
Stono Rebellion a 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws
Fall Line where waterfalls prevent large boats from moving farther upriver
Piedmont means "foot of the mountians"
Clans large groups of families that claim a common ancestor
Benjamin Franklin Who said "Join or Die"
Land ownership what gave colonists political rights as well as prosperity
Children as young as ______ were expected to be useful 3-4
apprentice around age 11, many boys left their fathers to become apprentices
Most children were taught how to read so they could understand what The Bible
Most children finished their formal education by what age 7
Poor Richard's Almanack An almanack created by Benjamin Franklin
Great Awakening a revival of religious feelings in teh American colonies during the 1730's and 1740's
Johnathan Edwards one the best know preachers during the "great awakening"
George Whitefield drew thousands of people with his sermons and raised funds to start a home for orphans
Enlightenment emphasized reason and science as the pathway to knowledge
Benjamin Franklin poet, writer, signer of the declaration of independence, enlightenment figure
John Locke argued that people have natural rights-life, liberty, and property
Magna Carta 1519-limited the power of the king, guaranteed important rights to noblemen and freemen
Parliament England's chief lawmaking body
Edmund Andros royal governor sent by King James II--angered colonists by ending their representative assemblies
Glorious Revolution the overthrow of English King James II in 1688 and his replacement by William and Mary
English Bill of Rights an agreement signed by William and Mary to respect the rights of English citizens and of Parliament, including the right to free elections
Salutary Neglect a hands-off policy of England towards its American colonies during the first half of the 1700's
Zenger Trial 1735, John Peter Zenger stood trial for printing criticism of a New York governor, clamied he had freedom to speak the truth, later was released
French and Indian War part of the seven year war that took place in the American colonies
Ohio River Valley disputed area during the French and Indian War
Albany Plan of Union Benjamin Franklins first formal proposal to unite the colonies, didn't go through
Battle of Quebec the turning point in the French and Indian war, british won
Treaty of Paris the 1763 treaty that ended the French and Indian war--Britian claimed all of the territory east of the Mississippi River
Pontiac's Rebellion a revolt against British forts and American settlers in 1763, led in response to settlers claims of Native American lands
Proclamation of 1763 an order in which Britian prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
King George III British monarch, who wanted to enforce the proclamation and keep peace with Britian's Native American allies
Quartering Act 1765--cost saving measure that required the colonies to quarter, or house, British soldiers and provide them with supplies
Sugar Act 1764--this law placed a tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to the colonies
Stamp Act 1765--This law required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid. (diplomas, contracts and wills)
Patrick Henry "If this be treason, make the most of it"
Boycott a refusal to buy
Sons of Liberty lawyers, merchants, and craftspeople who stagged peaceful and nonpeaceful protests against the acts
Crispus Attucks first person to die in the Boston Massacre
Townshend Acts 1767--a series of laws passed by Parliament that suspended New York's assembly and established taxes on good brought into the British colonies
Writs of Assistance a search warrant that allowed British officers to enter colonial homes or businesses to search for smuggled goods
Samuel Adams leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty urged colonists to resist British control,
Daughters of Liberty called on colonists to weave their own cloth and use American products
Boston Massacre a clash between British soldiers and Boston colonists in 1770, in which five of the colonists
John Adams defended the British soldiers in the Boston Massacre trial
Committees of Correspondence a group of people in the colonies who exchanged letters on colonial affairs
Tea Act 1773--gave the British East India Company control over the American tea trade, taxing the colonists for british tea
Boston Tea Party 1773--Sons of liberty organized a revolt against the Tea Act dumping 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor
Intolerable Acts 1774--British Parliament passed a series of laws to punish the Massachusetts colony
General Thomas Gage appointed to enforce the Intolerable acts in the colonies
Coercive Acts what the British called the Intolerable Acts
First Continental Congress delegates voted to ban all trade with Britian until the Intolerable Acts had been repealed, also called on each colony to begin to train troops
Paul Revere "the British are coming, the British are coming"
Lexington and Concord first battles of the Revolutionary war
Loyalists those who supported the British
Patriots those who sided with the colonists
Ralph Waldo Emerson author who said the first shot of the Revolutionary War was the "shot heard round the world"
Ethan Allen led the band of backwoodsmen known as the Green Mountain Boys
Artillery cannons and large guns
Second Continental Congress agreed to form the Continental Army
Continental Army colonial army led by George Washington
Battle of Bunker Hill British victory, but showed continental army was strong
Colonel Prescott "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes"
Olive Branch Petition last attempt at peace, document asking the king to restore harmony between Britain and the colonies
Benedict Arnold accused of treason against the colonies
Common Sense phamplet written by Thomas Paine convincing American colonists that a complete break with England was necessary
Richard Henry Lee introduced a key resolution and called for the colonies to become "free and independent states" and declared that "all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is ...totally dissolved."
Declaration of Independence July 4th, 1776--13 colonies declaring their independence from British rule
The committee that drafted the Declartion of Independence Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson
Author of the Declartion of Independence Thomas Jefferson, 33 years old
Most famous part of the Declaration of Independence "We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalenable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness."
Wilderness Road a trail into Kentucky that Daniel Boone helped to build
Republic the people choose representatives to govern them
Articles of Confederation a document, adopted by the Continental Congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new United States
Land Ordinance of 1785 called for surveyors to stake out six mile-square plots, called townships, in the Western lands. These lands later became known as the Northwest Territory
Northwest Ordinance Described how the Northwest Territory was to be governed
Weaknesses of the Articles Lacked power to enforce laws, lacked power to levy taxes, lacked power to regulate trade among the states, required all 13 states to approve changes in the Articles
Shay's Rebellion an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers in 1787
Constitutional Convention a meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation; resulted in teh drafting of the Constitution
Virginia Plan a plan proposed by Edmund Randolph, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, that proposed a government with three branches and a two-house legislature in which representation would be based on a state's population or wealth
New Jersey Plan a plan of government proposed at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 that called for a one-house legislature in which each state would have one vote.
Great Compromise the Constitutional Convention's agreement to establish a two-house national legislature, with all states having equal representative in one house and each state having representation based on its population in the other house
3/5 compromise the Constitutional Convention's agreement to count three-fifths of a state's slaves as popluation for purposes of representation and taxation
Federalism system of government in which power is shared between the central (or federal) government and the states
Federalists those who supported the Constitution took the name
Antifederalists thought the constitution took too much power away from the states and did not guarantee rights for the people
The Federalists Papers series of essays defending and explaining the Constitution
Bill of Rights the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, added in 1791, and consisting of a formal list of citizens' rights and freedoms
George Mason most influencial anti-federalists leader. Would not consider the constitution if the bill of rights was not added.
popular sovereignty a government in which the people rule
Republicanism based on the belief that people exercise their power by voting for their political representatives
Federalism system of government in which power is divided between a central government and smaller political representatives
Separation of Power division of basic government roles into branches
Checks and Balances each branch of government are separate, they rely on one another to perform the work of the government
limited government in American government everyone, citizen and powerful leaders alike, must obey the law
Individual rights personal liberties or privileges