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Theater history 18th century

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Drame   any serious play that didn’t fit the neoclassical definition of tragedy  
Ballad opera (opera comique)   18th century, english burlesqued opera: no recitative, songs were set to popular tunes, characters drawn from lower classes ex: The Beggar's Opera  
Sentimental comedy (comedie larmoyante)   18th century england, comedy reaffirmed middle-class morality; virtuous rewarded, wicked punished  
Middle class (Bourgeois) tragedy   tragedy-heros from middle class, dramitizations of middle class morality; sentimental; melodramatic  
Drury Lane & Covent Gardens   only two theaters in london to present legitimet drama  
Chiaroscuro   in painting, emphasis of contrasts between light and shadow, assosiated with Giambattista Piranesi and others  
Licensing act of 1737   Restricted plays to two patent holding theaters in london, all scripts must be approved by the lord chamberlain.  
Boulevard theaters   Theaters located in 18th century france, along the buolevard du temple in paris, catering to popular tastes.  
Multiple point (angled) perspective   use of 2 or more vanishing points, frequently at sides of a painted design. Ferdinando Bibiena introduced it in the early 18th century  
Bombastic/Declamatory   Standard patterns of stage movement, emphasis on oritoracle skills, often address lines to audience.  
Laughing comedy   comedy where people laugh, coined by Oliver Goldsmith  
Baroque   exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur  
Hanswurst   a pantomimic character in comic performances on the German stage; a great favourite at one time with the vulgar; distinguished for his awkwardness, his gluttonous appetite, and his rotundity.  
The Enlightenment   advocated Reason as the primary basis of authority  
Sturm and Drang   emphasized the volatile emotional life of the individual, 1767-85  
Scenic design in this period   Influenced by italy, most had wing and shutter settings, painted perspective and used the pole and chariot system. Ground rows were invetned, chiaroscuro used  
Acting in this period   bombastic acting  
Emergence of the director   came about because playwrights and actors had other primary concerns  
Denis Diderot   18th century famous French Philosopher who edited Encyclopedia, came up with the genre Drame Burgois, wanted greater realism, playwright  
Oliver Goldsmith   18th century English Playwright, Attacked sentimental comedy calling instead for laughing comedy  
Charles Macklin   18th century English Actor, Natural style of performing, also playwright  
Richard Brinsley Sheridan   18th century English Playwright, wrote sentimental comedy, viewed as a link between two periods  
Beaumarchais   18th century french Playwright, his works reflect the explosive political, economic, and social issues of the time, ex: the marrage of figaro  
Carlo Goldoni   18th century italian playwirhgt, wanted plays to be more realistic and more lifelike  
Dumesnil   18th century french stage actress, better actor than singer, worked in Comédie-Française, rivals with Clarion  
Clarion   18th century french actress, in the Comédie Italienne, then to the Comédie-Française, rivals with Dumesnil  
David Garrick   18th century english actor, producer and playwright, managed Druery Lane, more realistic acting, reformed stageing of plays, became like a director  
The Bibienas   18th century scenic designers, came up with multiple point perspective, leaders in scenic design  
George Lillo   18th century playwright, invented domestic tragedy, ex. the london merchent  
Johann von Goethe   18th century German Director, playwright, critic, philosopher, minister of court of Wimar, and efficient leader, made intense rehersal process, and regulations for acting behavior  
Caroline Neuber   18th century German actress-manager who was influential in the development of modern German theatre. impruved actors social standing  
Carlo Gozzi   18th century Italian PLaywright, wanted theater to be more fantastical  


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