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Durg List A

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Answer
What is the Dosage for Aspirin   Adult: 162-325 mg PO Pediatric: Not Recommended  
What is the Route of administration for Aspirin   PO  
What is the Generic name for Aspirin   Acetylsalicylic Acid  
What is the Classification of Aspirin   Analgesic; Antipyretic; on-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID); Platelet Aggregate Inhibitor  
What is the first Mechanism of Action for Aspirin   1. Inhibits aggregation of platelets by blocking the formation of the substance thromboxane therefors also prolonging bleeding time  
What is the Second Mechanism of Action for Aspirin   2. Provides analgesia by inhibiting prostaglandins and other substances that sensitize pain receptors  
What is the Third Mechanism of Action for Aspirin   3. Relieves fever by acting upon the hypothalamic heat regulating center  
What are Aspirin's Indications   Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation in a suspected myocardial infarction and inhibits platelet aggregation associated with a thrombotic stroke  
What are Aspirin's Contraindications   1. Active gastrointestinal bleeding 2. Asthma pacients with nasal polyps  
What are Aspirin's Gastrointestinal Side effects   Gastrointestinal: bleeding, heartburn, epigastric pain  
What are Aspirin's CNS Side effects   CNS: dizziness, confusion, drowsiness  
What are Aspirin's ENT Side effects   ENT: Tinnitus, hearing loss  
What does ENT mean   Ears Nose and Throat  
What are other possible side effects for Aspirin   May impair renal function, may prolong labor in pregnancy with increased bleeding  
What are Aspirin's Precautions   1.Medical Hx of pre-existing ulcers, liver diseas, or bleeding disorders 2. Due to the possible association with reye's syndrome, do not give drug to children or teenagers with signs and symptoms of chickenpox withour physician consultation  
What are Aspirin's interactions   1. Aspirin inhibits anti-hypertensive effects of ACE inhibitors 2. Ammoniun chloride and other urin acidifying drugs will increase effects of aspirin- watch for toxicity  
Aspirin's Onset and durration of Action   Onset is 5-30 min and may last 1-4 hr, peak in 15 min  
What is the Classification of Morphine Sulfate   Opioid Narcotic, CNS Depressant  
What is the First Mechanism of Action for Morphine Sulfate   Alters pain perception and produces euphoria  
What is the Second Mechanism of Action for Morphine Sulfate   Decreases myocardial oxygen demand by decreasing preload and decreasing afterload  
What is the Third Mechanism of Action for Morphine Sulfate   Decreases the CNS by interacting with opiate receptors in the brain  
What are the indications for Morphine Sulfate   1. Moderate to severe pain 2. Chest pain of suspected myocardial orgin 3. Pulmonary Edema from CHF with or without chest pain 4. Burns  
What are the Contraindications for Morphine Sulfate   1. Altered level of consciousness 2. Adbominal pain of unknown etiology 3. Patients at risk of respiratory depression 4. Head injury 5. Hypovolemia  
What are the Cardiovascular side effects for Morphine sulfate   bradycardia, hypotension, (rebound tachycardia/hypertension)  
What are the Neurological side effects for Morphine Sulfate   Sedation, agitation, tremors/seizures, hallucinations  
What are the Respiratory side effects for Morphine Sulfate   respiratory depression and respiratory arrest  
What are the Gastrointesinal side effects for Morphine Sulfate   Nausea/ Vomiting  
What are the precautions for Morphine Sulfate   Morphine sulfate is an opiate derivative- Naloxone should be available to reverse any severe respiratory side effects  
What are the interactions for Morphine Sulfate   Use with caution with patients taking other analgesics, depressants or narcotics  
What are the Routes of Administration for Morphine Sulfate   IV, IO, IM  
What is the Onset and Duration of Action for Morphine Sulfate   IV/IO will have an onset of 2-5 min and IM will have an onset of 5-10 min. Each will last approximately 3-5 hr  
What are the Dosages for Morphine Sulfate   Adult: Pain Relief 1.0 - 10.0 mg IV titrated to pain relief or 5.0 - 10.0 mg IM as a single dose only Pulmonary Edema: 5.0 -10.0 mg slow IV push (2.0 mg/min)Pediatric: 0.1 -0.2 mg/kg slow IV push (1.0mg/min) titrated to pain relief or 0.1 mg/kg IM  
Morphine Sulfate Notes   May Draw 10 mg (1ml) into a syringe and mix with 9ml of normal saline. This creates a 1mg/1ml concentration for better control when administering the medication  
What is the Classification for Activated Charcoal   Adsorbent  
What is the Mechanism of Action for Activated Charcoal   Binds (adsorbs) toxic substances inhibiting gastrointestinal absorption, leaving less toxic substance in body circulation; increasing fecal elimination of drug/charcoal complex  
What is the indication for Activated Charcoal   Suspected ingestion of drugs or chemicals  
What are the contraindications for Activated Charcoal   1. Patients with a compromised airway – need to minimize chance for aspiration or obstruction 2. Ingestion of Iron or multi-vitamins  
What are the side effects for Activated Charcoal   Respiratory: choking Gastrointestinal: vomiting, black stools, abdominal cramping/bloating  
What are the percautions for Activated Charcoal   1. Should not be administered immediately after Syrup of Ipecac 2. Must shake vigorously prior to administration 3. Do not use charcoal with sorbitol (an added sweetener) in children < 1 yr  
What are the interactions for Activated Charcoal   Will not bind with alcohol  
What are the routs of administration for Activated Charcoal   voluntarily by patient or PO via nasogastric/orogastric tube  
What is the onset and duration of action for Activated Charcoal   Onset is immediate, peak effect and duration are unknown  
What is the dosage for Activated Charcoal   Adult: Initially 1g/kg PO Pediatric: Initially 1g/kg PO  
Notes for Activated Charcoal   1. Does not absorb cyanide, ethanol, methanol, ferrous sulfate, caustic alkali or mineral acids 2. Most effective if administered within 30 minutes of ingestion 3. Use very cautiously in patients who cannot protect their own airway  
What are some of the trade names for Activated Charcoal   Acta-Char, Actidose-Aqua, Insta-Char, Liqui-Char, CharcoAid  
What are some of the trade names for Nitro   Nitrolingual, Nitrostat, Nitrobid, Tridil  
What are the classifications for Nitroglycerin   Vasodilator, Nitrate, Antianginal  
What is the Mechanism of Action for Nitroglycerin   1. Relaxes smooth muscles causing venous dilation 2. Reduces preload and afterload to the heart 3. Dilates the coronary arteries resulting in increased perfusion of the myocardium  
What are the indications for Nitroglycerin   1. Chest pain of cardiac origin 2. Acute pulmonary edema  
What are the contraindications for Nirtoglycerin   1. Blood pressure less than 100 mmHg systolic2. Patients who have taken Erectile Dysfunction medications in the last 24-48 hours3. Signs and symptoms of head trauma (increased intracranial pressure) or cerebral hemorrhage4. Poor systemic perfusion  
What are the Cardiovascular side effects of Nitroglycerin   hypotension, bradycardia, rebound hypertension/tachycardia, palpitations  
What are the Neurological side effects of Nirtoglycerin   headache  
What are the Other side effects of Nitroglycerin   flushed skin, sublingual burning  
What are the precautions for Nitroglycerin   Monitor blood pressure closely for signs of hypotension (before and after administration)  
What are the interactions for Nitroglycerin   Use with caution with patients who already use vasodilators, alcohol, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers and phenothiazides  
What are the routes of administration for Nitroglycerin   SL, TM (transmucosal), transdermal (nitropaste)  
What is the onset and duration of action for Nitroglycerin   Onset in 1-3 minutes and may last 30-60 minutes  
What is the dosage for Nitroglycerin   Adult: 0.4 mg as a single spray or single tablet. May repeat every 3-5 minutesPediatric: not recommended  
Notes for Nitroglycerin   1. Do not shake canister if administered as a spray as it will altered the metered dose in a single spray 2. Do not have patient inhale drug on administration as it will alter absorption rate  
Notes 2 for Nitroglycerin   3. Establish IV prior to or immediately following administration to combat hypotension if necessary  
What is the classificationof Oxygen   Gas  
What is the Mechanism of Action for Oxygen   Increases percentage of oxygen in inspired air (FiO2)  
What is FiO2   Fractional Inhaled O2  
What are the indications of Oxygen   1. Increase oxygen demand2. Hypoxemia or hypoxia3. Chest pain of myocardial origin, cardiovascular compromise or emergencies4. Respiratory insufficiency5. Neurological diseases or disorders6. Hypoperfusion state or trauma  
What are the Routes of Administration for Oxygen   Inhaled  
What is the Onset and Duration of Action for Oxygen   in 1-2 minutes and may last 30 minutes  
What are the Dosages for Oxygen   Nasal Cannula- 2-6 LPM Simple Face Mask- 6-10 LPM Nonrebreather Mask- 10-15 LPM HHN/Neb Mask- 6-8 LPM BVM- 15 LPM  
Oxygen Notes   Never withhold oxygen from any patient in distress  


   






 
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