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HUSH Final

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Washington [no party]   First president of the United States, a general at heart and retired rather than trying to drag his term out. Warned against the use of political parties and nationalized divisions of consumerist departments (banks). Also a FreeMason  
Adams [Federalist]   2nd president, VP to Washington. Passed Alien and Sedition Acts. First president to live in White House. Father of John Q. Adams, 6th president. Political rivals included Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Appointed John Marshall to the Supreme Cour  
Jefferson [Democratic Republican]   3rd president, VP to Adams. Made the Louisiana Purchase, which went against his political views. Began Indian removal. Helped organize the Dem  
Madison[Democratic Republican]   4th president. Led during the War of 1812. Ratified the Second Bank of the United States. Spent second term in the Era of Good Feelings  
Monroe [Democratic Republican]   5th president. Passed Monroe Doctrine, aimed at Russia, which told European powers to stay out of America. Bought Florida from Spain, agreed to share Oregon with England. President during MO Compromise  
Quincy Adams [Democratic Republican]   He was a thinker over a politician. He was known to be irritable and sarcastic. Decidedly better at the position of Secretary of State rather than President, he had his way with words, but didn’t appeal to the people. He commanded respect over poise and w  
Jackson [Democrat]   Hailed as the hero of the common man, honest and faithful, fighting the rich tyrants; Jackson was a frontiersman and won the heart and spirit of the people. Followers of Jackson were known for heavy mudslinging, including Jackson himself. Supporting regio  
Van Buren [Democrat]   First president born under the US flag, New Yorker. Very well educated in comparison to previous presidents up to Jackson. He had myths of mediocrity spread about him. Hated by Democrats. Inherited Jackson’s legacy and upheld it without the desired popula  
Harrison [Whig]   Nicknamed “Tippecanoe,” Republican candidate. *Need more, can’t find much, mostly for Benjamin Harrison*  
Tyler [Whig]   Tall, classical Virginia gentleman of the old school. Gracious, but attached to southern principle. Sold out from Democrats to the Whigs to avoid Jackson. He only served for 204 weeks, he was at odds with the majority of his part, allying with the Democra  
Polk [Democratic]   Starting out with a bad reputation with slavery, Polk became a very viable candidate. Polk ran against Clay and ended up winning, scraping by a wire. Not an impressive figure, he was mid sized, old , and stern. He was known for being extremely stubborn an  
Taylor [Whig]   War Hero. Virginia born slave owning planter from Louisiana. The south held a majority in the cabinet under this administration and control in the supreme court.  
Fillmore [Whig (American Party)]   took over for Taylor when he died in office; advocate of compromise on the slavery issue; enforced the fugitive slave act of 1850 and caused the end of the Whig party  
Pierce [Democrat]   Weak and indecisive, followed in Polk’s footsteps and was considered an oddity as a prosouthern Northerner. He endorsed the Compromise of 1850, Fugitive Slave Law and all. Elected in 1852.  
Buchanan [Democrat]   Strong Southern supporter. Drew the majority of his influence behind the Lecompton Constitution. The ‘Bleeding Kansas’ events occurred under his presidency...  
Lincoln [Republican]   President during Civil War, Republican, wanted to contain slavery, not abolish it  
Johnson   Faced many issues when in office. Succeeded Lincoln. Extremely humble beginnings, came from an impoverished family. Strongly supported by the North. Owned a few slaves. Before inaugural ceremonies he was sick with typhoid and came under the heavily influe  
Grant [Republican]   Very corrupt administration. Enjoyed cigars, wines, and horses. Involved heavily with Boss Tweed, Many alcohol (Whiskey) rings erupted in sanction and hiding under Grant’s administration. tl;dr Very Corrupt.  
Hayes [Republican]   “The Great Unknown,” he was a geat compromiser from Ohio. He won “swing” votes through his heritage and reputation, or lack thereof. Tilden ran against him and was known for bagging ‘Boss Tweed.’ Democrats reacted violently, literally, and minute men actu  
Garfield [Republican]   shot in the back and died 11 weeks later; his death caused the shameful spoils of office to be improved upon  
Arthur [Republican]   became president after Garfield; prosecuted several fraud cases and passed the Pendleton Act; had civil service reform and angered many Republicans with his display of integrity  
Cleveland [Democrat]   Used mudslingers very heavily. He was a burly bachelor reformer who was a solid, but not brilliant lawyer. He had a reputation for having a good record, making it a shock when mudslingers dug up the fact he had an affair. Lowest level of presidential muds  
Gilded Age   Age directly prior to the full industrialization of America. Factories were being established and the era in which capitalism truly took off. People started moving into the cities and mass amounts of migrants arrived, swelling cities.  
Charles Darwin   evolutionists who went to the Galapagos Islands, observing finches; it brought about the idea of Social Darwinism, which is that individuals gained their place in life by competing on the basis of their natural talents  
Battle of Little Big Horn   Custer’s last stand; he thought he could have 200 soldiers fight 4000 Indians and win  
Dred Scott Decision   a black slave, Dred Scott, was taken to a free state by his slave owner; he argued the fact that he was now free, since he was located in a free state; the verdict ended up being that he was still a slave; he did not have citizenship thus did not have the  
nullification crisis   Jackson/ South Carolina Legislature’s fight between declaring the 1832 tariff; resolved by Henry Clay  
Indian Removal Act   Jackson, ignoring the three Supreme Court cases upholding the Indians’ rights, he gave the Indians the “choice” to move west. Whites were expanding, and he thought Indian cultures could be preserved in the wide open West. Passed in 1830, it called for the  
Trail of Tears   forced marches as a result of the Indian Removal Act that killed thousands of Indians from starvation, dying of the elements, or other things  
Jefferson Davis   president of the Confederate states, he was trapped under the issue of states’ rights when the Confederacy was falling apart; he was often blamed for the war as a scapegoat; he was sent to prison for a few years, never brought to trial, then eventually re  
Robert E. Lee   commander of the Union forces; he was a brilliant leader, who won or tied almost all of his battles up until Gettysburg  
Battle of Gettysburg   a decisive Union victory, it turned the tide of the war to the point at which Lee could never recover. It provided a good place to make the Gettysburg Address, which could only occur after a major victory (Battle of Gettysburg)  
Alaska   “Seward’s folly”; it was bought from Russia in 1867 by Secretary of State WIlliam Seward; it cost a total of $7.2 million and eventually became enormously profitable through gold and, eventually, oil  
KKK   Terrorist organization based in the South  
Freedmen’s Bureau   intended to give food, shelter, and education to blacks; its greatest achievement was with education; in some areas, the achievements were small  
Appomattox   [Courthouse], it was the place where Lee surrendered to Grant in April of 1865, ending the Civil War and beginning reconstruction  
elastic clause   Hamilton REALLY liked this, lets you do whatever you want as long as the Constitution doesn’t say you can’t.  
implied powers   The idea that a person, specifically in the government has the ability to perform and action by being able to perform another action or not having been directly restricted on the action or its subject matter.  
Jacksonian Democracy   The people are in total control of their country and its choices.  
Rhode Island   Considered the most “free” of the colonies. They emphasized tolerance and acceptance of various peoples. [Post Revolution]  
Black Codes   Codes set in by the South to control the blacks after being freed from slavery. This was put in place to control the blacks and restrict their rights as much as possible.  
Emancipation Proclamation   Lincoln’s address on Jan. 1 of 1863 freeing the slaves of the South; it is important to note that it did not, in fact, free slaves in border states, as Lincoln needed the support of the border states in order to win the war. He had to wait until a battle  
Henry Clay   THE GREAT COMPROMISER IF YOU DON’T KNOW AN ANSWER GUESS HIM HE LITERALLY LIVED FOR FOREVER r’amen  
Missouri Compromise too, I think.    
Missouri Compromise   lasting for 34 years, it admitted MIssouri as a slave state if Maine would enter as a free state; all further slavery was prohibited in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase; it retained the balance between slave and free state, and it occurred under the Mon  
Compromise of 1850   passed under the new president Fillmore, strongly supported by Clay; (1) admitted California as a free state; (2) territory disputed by Texas and New Mexico to be surrendered to New Mexico, Texas receives $10 mil; (3) abolition of the slave trade in DC; (  
John Marshall   Chief Justice of the Supreme Court when they began to get more judicial power; he presided over many important court cases  
Kansas Nebraska Act   Proposed by Stephen Douglas, it split Nebraska into two parts; the issue of slavery was to be solved by popular sovereignty; it caused a large influx of people who weren’t from either Kansas or Nebraska and led to Bleeding Kansas; it strictly went against  
John C. Calhoun   “The Great Nullifier” championed the South. Gave his last speech dying and bundled up in the Senate gave his presentation and gave his last words in regards to keeping slavery in operation.  
1st Great Awakening   (1730s to 1740s) first ignited in Northampton, Massachusetts, it set out to do away with many of the liberal ideas and “dead dog” sermons; more speeches revived the evangelical nature of many Americans  
2nd Great Awakening   a great religious revival (around 1800), it came about because of Deists and Unitarians (only one person of God) and the growing liberalism of religion; it also caused things like prison reform and women’s rights to bubble to the surface; as many as 25k p  
Wilmot Proviso   amendment that sought the prohibition of slavery from newly acquired territories; brought up tensions between the North and South  
Texas War of Independence   Mexican War with Texas as they annexed; they thought their borders were between the Rio Grande  
Mexican War   occurred after the Texas War of Independence, the US was annexing the part of Texa on their behalf, even though they were not admitted to the Union right away; finished with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo  
War of 1812   Britain/US; it allowed the US to expand their borders so that we could go West  
Revolutionary War   the war between the Colonists and Britain  
French and Indian War   also known as the 7 years’ war, it was a 9 year war between England and France in North America; resulted in the French leaving most of North America  
Manifest Destiny   The belief by the settlers of the US that it was their God given freedom and right to overtake all of the North American continent. This belief was at the expense of the natives and was undertaken with great fervor and zeal.  
Monroe Doctrine   encouraged by Adams to pass, it was a stern warning to European powers: (1) noncolonization and (2) nonintervention; it was primarily aimed towards Russia, and it was in protection of the southern areas against a fleet of the Spanish, It was also a warnin  
American System   Made by Henry Clay (of course it was); (1) strong banking system, (2) protective tariff, (3) transportation with roads and canals  
Era of Good Feelings   during the presidency of Monroe, tranquility and prosperity seemed to come up, but it was really a troubled period; issues were all being hotly contested and sectionalism was boiling to the surface  
the Bank of the U.S.   nationalized bank; Hamilton strongly supported it and Jackson killed it as soon as he got in office; printed paper and money and provided a centralized currency; Jeffersonians argued it was unconstitutional  
Marbury v. Madison   it was ultimately over who had the final authority over determining the meaning of the Constitution; it came as a slap in the face to Jeffersonians, and gave the Supreme Court the power it has today  
Whig Party   favored Congress over the President; formed in response to Jackson; favored economic protection  
Republican Party   Came about on an abolitionist platform, first president was Lincoln, supported rights for former slaves  
Democratic Party   evolved out of Dem Reps, lots of Southerners were Democrats, opposed to rights for freedmen  
<note>kinda funny how the platforms of Dems and Reps have switched. Reps used to be for a strong federal gov’t and minority rights, while Dems supported states rights and tried to prevent minorities from voting</note>    
Dem Rep. Party   believed in a smaller government and paid off debts; they were strongly supported by the more rural and poor people  
Alexander Hamilton   Federalist that believed in bigger government and strongly opposed Jefferson; wanted a Bank of the U.S.; thought that having a debt was good as it got people invested into the country  
War Hawks   Led by Hamilton, pressed for war during the Jefferson administration. They were strongly opposed by the Jeffersonian Federalists. [Pre Civil War]  
Alien Laws   the president could deport those immigrants who were dangerous in times of peace and deport/imprison them in times of hostilities; it wasn’t enforced  
Sedition Act   it was a slap in the face to the first amendment, specifically freedom of speech and freedom of the press; anyone who impeded the policies of the government or defamed the officials could have a large fine and/or imprisonment  
Embargo Act   (1807) Congress hastily passed this, which forbade the export of all goods from the United States; Thomas Jefferson supported it, as he thought it would end the warring between the European countries by cutting off the raw materials they so desperately ne  
Federalist Party   Hamilton’s party; first American political party; they wanted a bigger government that favored the wealthy; most of the supporters were the rich and city dwellers  
Boston Tea Party   on December 16, 1773, around 100 Bostonians dressed as Indians opened 342 chests of tea and dumped them into the Atlantic. It was mostly in response to the Stamp Act, which put taxes on a good that everyone had: tea.  
Boston Massacre   On March 5, 1770, around 60 people began throwing snowballs at the redcoats because they were still angry about the death of a little boy. The British officials were unsure of what to do, so the 10 began shooting and killed 11 Bostonians. The leader of th  
Treaty of Paris 1763   ended the 7 years’ war with the Indians; it deprived the Indians of their important diplomatic weapon: the ability to play the European powers over each other ; now, the Indians would have to deal exclusively with the British; it dealt a big blow to inter  
Treaty of Paris 1783   the British formally recognized the independence of the US; it gave the US broad boundaries which angered the Canadians (they were given fishing in Newfoundland); loyalists were not to be executed and they were to recommend to state legislatures that Loya  
Proclamation of 1763   Issued by London, it prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachians; it was not designed to oppress the colonists, but to prevent conflict between the American and the Indians, like Pontiac’s uprising.  
Tories   Loyalists to the British crown in the American Revolution, logically despised by the opposite faction. [Revolution]  
Battle of Saratoga   Revolutionary war battle that was a decisive, but risky American victory. This was a battle that inspired the Colonial cause once more. Lost by Burgoyne against General Arnold, Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire command. [Revolution]  
Stamp Act   Act passed as part of the intolerable acts, put a tax on everything that required a “stamp.”  
At the time a “stamp” was more of a form of receipt put on goods rather than a mailed stamp. This led to nearly every item formally purchased to be taxed by the English government in the colonies. [Colonial]    
Christopher Columbus   Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492; landed in the present day Bahamas and called them the “West Indies”; he was under the support of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain; helped to colonize Hispaniola and began the Spanish Conquest of the New World  
Jamestown   An expedition to settle the new world, one of the first. Our of the hundred, 40 perished on the voyage. The settlers were not prepared to fend for themselves and wasted valuable time searching for gold rather than provisions. Four hundred settlers made it  
Puritans   Most of the first/early settlers. Protestant group that believed in strict adherence to the bible and in purity. They believed in the fallibility of man and that man needed to work hard and make/keep himself pure. (Known to be kind of nutter when it comes  
Quakers   Early, prominent religious sect of Puritans who were peaceful and believed in a simple life. They were very prominent in Pennsylvania. [Colonial Present]  
Indentured servants   When a man voluntarily mortgaged the sweat of their bodies for several years (usually 4 to 7) to masters. In exchange they received passage and “eventual freedom dues,” including an ax, a hoe, a few barrels of corn a suit of clothes, and perhaps a small p  
Mercantilism   The belief that Gold and state wealth defined the wealth and rank of a nation. Spain believed heavily in this. Base theory: “Export more than you import.” [Pre Colonial Colonial]  
slavery   began as mostly in the Caribbean, the slave trade was an integral part of the Southern culture. It was a dying practice until the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney; it led to a few slave revolts, some people escaping in the Underground Railroad;  
Spanish Armada   Failed Spanish attempt to take control of the North Atlantic, was thwarted and resulted in a solidified English supremacy of the seas. 1588, 130 strong ship fleet against the outnumbered English sea dogs. “The Protestant wind” scattered the Spanish fleet,  
Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions   The Kentucky resolution was penned by Jefferson, Virginia by James Madison. The idea penned by these legistlative documents was that of “the compact theory” that stated the sovereignty of the states and that they had joined in a contract. The intent was t  


   






 
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