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Urinalysis Ch 8 & 9

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Question
Answer
diseases that affect the glomerulus are usually caused by   immunologic disorders  
what are the symptoms of acute glomerular nephritis   edema, hematuria, proteinuria  
nephrotic syndrome in children is caused by   membranous glomerulonephritis  
what causes damage to the glomerulus   immune complexes, cellular infiltration, amyloid materials  
Crescentic formations on glomerular capillaries are found in   rapidly progressive glomerular nephritis  
Iga nephropathy is also known as?   Berger disease  
Nephrotic syndrome can occur as a complication of   systemic shock  
this renal disorder association with heroin abuse   focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  
what blood tests are used to confirm acute glomerulonephritis   anti streptococcal group A  
what urine sediment constituent is present in patients with goodpastures syndrome in Wagner's granulomatosis   RBC casts  
what crystals are associated with nephrotic syndrome   cholesterol  
patients with symptoms of hemoptysis and hematuria should be tested for   glomerular basement membrane anti body  
which renal disorders have good prognosis   henoch-schonlein pupura  
glomerular basement membrane thickening occurs as a result of   immunoglobulin g immune complex  
heavy proteinuria is found in   nephrotic syndrome  
edema associated with nephrotic syndrome is associated with   sodium retention, depletion of plasma albumin  
oval fat bodies and fatty casts maybe found in patients with   nephrotic syndrome  
decreased systemic blood flow causes what to occur in the renal tubules   ischemia (lack of oxygen)  
amino aciduria is found in   falcconi syndrome  
what's renal disorders maybe inherited   alport syndrome, falcconi syndrome, nephrogenic diabetes, insipidus, glycosurea  
administration of a neophro toxic antibiotic to patient with decreased glomerular function may result in   acute tubular necrosis  
a bladder infection is known as a   cystitis  
how can you differentiate cystitis from pyelonephritis   the presence of WBC casts  
what conditions may cause acute pyelonephritis   calculi, reflux, pregnancy  
bacterial cast indicate   chronic and acute pyelonephritis  
what is the most serious tubulointerstitial disorder   chronic pyelonephritis  
increased urinary eosinophils indicate   acute interstitial nephritis  
acute interstitial nephritis result in these microscopic findings   eosinophils, RBC, WBC, WBC cast  
acute renal failure may be classified as   prerenal, renal, Post renal  
waxy cast and broad cast may be seen in patients with   chronic pyelonephritis chronic renal disease  
acute renal failure is caused by   sudden decrease in blood flow to the kidney, acute glomerular and tubular disease, renal calculi, or tumor obstruction  
renal calculi (kidney stone) composed of   75% calcium  
lithotripsy is used to   break stones located in the upper urinary tract with high energy shock waves  
microscopic hematuria found in renal lithiasis is a result of   irritation to the tissues  
what may help in preventing renal calculi formation   maintaining hydration, to lower Ph and possible dietary restrictions  
phenylketonuria (pku) is caused by   lack of enzyme  
what is the Guthrie test   microbial test for pku  
urine from patients with alkaptonuria may be positive for   homogentistic acid  
what disease results in large amounts of homogentistic acid in urine   alkaptonuria  
what disorders are associated with defects in the phenylanine-tyrosine pathway   amino acid disorders: melinuria, pku, alkaptonuria  
why is the initial plus screening done on blood rather than urine   because blood levels of phenylalanine must occur pair to urine excretion  
tyrosine and leucine crystals are associated with this disorder   liver disease  
how is the Guthrie test interpreted   phenylanine hydroxylase enzyme  
phenylketonurics may have fair complexions because   decreased production of tyrosine  
false positive urine ketones may be found in this condition   melinuria  
patients with this disorder have positive clinitest results   alkaptonuria  
how is maple syrup urine disease screened   2-4 DNPH (dinitrophenylhyelrazine)  
large amounts of branched chain amino acids are excreted by patients with   maple syrup disease  
sweaty feet odor urine is associated with   organic acidemias  
what are the types of organic acidemias   isovaleric, propionic, methylmalonic  
this reacts with p-nitroaniline to produce an emerald green color during testing   methylmalonic acid  
newborns with persistent ketonuria are   methylmalonic aciduria  
DNPH tests are used for   maple syrup, ketones  
maple syrup urine maybe first detected by   odor  
tryptophan not reabsorbed in the intestine is removed from the body how   feces  
argentaffin cell tumors can be detected by the presence of urinary   5-HIAA levels due to excess serotonin  
blue dipper indicates   tryptophan disorder  
false positive 5-HIAA tests are found in patients with   did not receive restricted diets  
increased amounts of indigo blue in urine indicates   Hartnup disease  
increased amounts of 5-HIAA in urine indicates   carcinoid tumors  
silver nitroprusside test for   homocystine  
how can you differentiate between cystinuria and homocystinuria   silver nitroprusside  
patients with kidney stones early in life should be tested for   cystinuria  
false positive cystine results are found in the presence of urine ketones because   nitroprusside (on test strip)  
porphyrins are   the intermediate compounds in the production of heme  
when testing for protoporoyhin, what specimen should be used?   bile  
primary porphyrins include   uroporphryins, coproporphyrins, protoporoyhins  
what porphyrin compounds exhibit fluorescence   rules out prophobilinogin and ALA  
acquired porphyria a is most commonly caused by   lead poisoning, excessive alcohol, iron deficiency, chronic liver disease and renal disease  
patients with inherited porphyria has these symptoms   neurological / psychiatric or cutaneous photosensitivity  
prophobilinogin can be suspected when   urine is port wine color  
when a urine from a patient with lead poisoning fluorescent red, it indicates   lead poisoning, coproporphyrin  
these compounds do not react with erlichs reagent or fluorescent   ALA  
what porphyrin compounds can be found in urine   coproporphyrins, uroporphryins, and ALA  
overflow type of disorders are caused by   errors of metabolism, serum exceeding threshold,destruction of normal enzyme function  
which disorders exhibit characteristic urine odors   plus, maple syrup, isovaleric, cystinuria, ctstinosis, homocystinuria  
in patients with hurlers and San Filippa syndrome what is elevated   mucopolysacharide  
metabolic disorders include   tyrosyluria, maple syrup, indicanuria  
orange sand in a newborn's diaper indicates   purine disorders - lyshnine  
CTAB and MPS tests are used for   mucopolysacharide, (CTAB- cetytrimethyl ammonium bromide; MPS- mucopolysacharide paper)  
falcconi's syndrome is a symptom of   Hartnup disease and cystinosis  


   


 
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