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Urinalysis Ch 8 & 9

diseases that affect the glomerulus are usually caused by immunologic disorders
what are the symptoms of acute glomerular nephritis edema, hematuria, proteinuria
nephrotic syndrome in children is caused by membranous glomerulonephritis
what causes damage to the glomerulus immune complexes, cellular infiltration, amyloid materials
Crescentic formations on glomerular capillaries are found in rapidly progressive glomerular nephritis
Iga nephropathy is also known as? Berger disease
Nephrotic syndrome can occur as a complication of systemic shock
this renal disorder association with heroin abuse focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
what blood tests are used to confirm acute glomerulonephritis anti streptococcal group A
what urine sediment constituent is present in patients with goodpastures syndrome in Wagner's granulomatosis RBC casts
what crystals are associated with nephrotic syndrome cholesterol
patients with symptoms of hemoptysis and hematuria should be tested for glomerular basement membrane anti body
which renal disorders have good prognosis henoch-schonlein pupura
glomerular basement membrane thickening occurs as a result of immunoglobulin g immune complex
heavy proteinuria is found in nephrotic syndrome
edema associated with nephrotic syndrome is associated with sodium retention, depletion of plasma albumin
oval fat bodies and fatty casts maybe found in patients with nephrotic syndrome
decreased systemic blood flow causes what to occur in the renal tubules ischemia (lack of oxygen)
amino aciduria is found in falcconi syndrome
what's renal disorders maybe inherited alport syndrome, falcconi syndrome, nephrogenic diabetes, insipidus, glycosurea
administration of a neophro toxic antibiotic to patient with decreased glomerular function may result in acute tubular necrosis
a bladder infection is known as a cystitis
how can you differentiate cystitis from pyelonephritis the presence of WBC casts
what conditions may cause acute pyelonephritis calculi, reflux, pregnancy
bacterial cast indicate chronic and acute pyelonephritis
what is the most serious tubulointerstitial disorder chronic pyelonephritis
increased urinary eosinophils indicate acute interstitial nephritis
acute interstitial nephritis result in these microscopic findings eosinophils, RBC, WBC, WBC cast
acute renal failure may be classified as prerenal, renal, Post renal
waxy cast and broad cast may be seen in patients with chronic pyelonephritis chronic renal disease
acute renal failure is caused by sudden decrease in blood flow to the kidney, acute glomerular and tubular disease, renal calculi, or tumor obstruction
renal calculi (kidney stone) composed of 75% calcium
lithotripsy is used to break stones located in the upper urinary tract with high energy shock waves
microscopic hematuria found in renal lithiasis is a result of irritation to the tissues
what may help in preventing renal calculi formation maintaining hydration, to lower Ph and possible dietary restrictions
phenylketonuria (pku) is caused by lack of enzyme
what is the Guthrie test microbial test for pku
urine from patients with alkaptonuria may be positive for homogentistic acid
what disease results in large amounts of homogentistic acid in urine alkaptonuria
what disorders are associated with defects in the phenylanine-tyrosine pathway amino acid disorders: melinuria, pku, alkaptonuria
why is the initial plus screening done on blood rather than urine because blood levels of phenylalanine must occur pair to urine excretion
tyrosine and leucine crystals are associated with this disorder liver disease
how is the Guthrie test interpreted phenylanine hydroxylase enzyme
phenylketonurics may have fair complexions because decreased production of tyrosine
false positive urine ketones may be found in this condition melinuria
patients with this disorder have positive clinitest results alkaptonuria
how is maple syrup urine disease screened 2-4 DNPH (dinitrophenylhyelrazine)
large amounts of branched chain amino acids are excreted by patients with maple syrup disease
sweaty feet odor urine is associated with organic acidemias
what are the types of organic acidemias isovaleric, propionic, methylmalonic
this reacts with p-nitroaniline to produce an emerald green color during testing methylmalonic acid
newborns with persistent ketonuria are methylmalonic aciduria
DNPH tests are used for maple syrup, ketones
maple syrup urine maybe first detected by odor
tryptophan not reabsorbed in the intestine is removed from the body how feces
argentaffin cell tumors can be detected by the presence of urinary 5-HIAA levels due to excess serotonin
blue dipper indicates tryptophan disorder
false positive 5-HIAA tests are found in patients with did not receive restricted diets
increased amounts of indigo blue in urine indicates Hartnup disease
increased amounts of 5-HIAA in urine indicates carcinoid tumors
silver nitroprusside test for homocystine
how can you differentiate between cystinuria and homocystinuria silver nitroprusside
patients with kidney stones early in life should be tested for cystinuria
false positive cystine results are found in the presence of urine ketones because nitroprusside (on test strip)
porphyrins are the intermediate compounds in the production of heme
when testing for protoporoyhin, what specimen should be used? bile
primary porphyrins include uroporphryins, coproporphyrins, protoporoyhins
what porphyrin compounds exhibit fluorescence rules out prophobilinogin and ALA
acquired porphyria a is most commonly caused by lead poisoning, excessive alcohol, iron deficiency, chronic liver disease and renal disease
patients with inherited porphyria has these symptoms neurological / psychiatric or cutaneous photosensitivity
prophobilinogin can be suspected when urine is port wine color
when a urine from a patient with lead poisoning fluorescent red, it indicates lead poisoning, coproporphyrin
these compounds do not react with erlichs reagent or fluorescent ALA
what porphyrin compounds can be found in urine coproporphyrins, uroporphryins, and ALA
overflow type of disorders are caused by errors of metabolism, serum exceeding threshold,destruction of normal enzyme function
which disorders exhibit characteristic urine odors plus, maple syrup, isovaleric, cystinuria, ctstinosis, homocystinuria
in patients with hurlers and San Filippa syndrome what is elevated mucopolysacharide
metabolic disorders include tyrosyluria, maple syrup, indicanuria
orange sand in a newborn's diaper indicates purine disorders - lyshnine
CTAB and MPS tests are used for mucopolysacharide, (CTAB- cetytrimethyl ammonium bromide; MPS- mucopolysacharide paper)
falcconi's syndrome is a symptom of Hartnup disease and cystinosis
Created by: svankirk
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