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Mod 3 Lec 3

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

What genera are in the Actinomycetes?   Major: Actinomyces, Norcardia, Streptomyces Other: Rhodococcus, Actinomadura, Norcardiopsis  
What are Actinomycetes, and what were they thought to be?   They are higher bacteria; thought to be fungi for years; some form aerial mycelia; clinical manifestations similar to systemic fungal infection  
What Actinomycetes is anaerobic?   Actinomyces  
What Actinomycetes is aerobic?   Norcardia, Streptomyces  
What Actinomycetes is partially acid-fast?   Norcardia  
What Actinomycetes is not acid-fast?   Actinomyces, Streptomyces  
What can all genera of Actinomycetes produce?   Granules  
What does Actinomyces spp. look like on gram stain?   Gram-positive rods; obligate anaerobes  
What is seen in direct microscopy that is diagnostic for Actinomyces spp?   Yellow sulfer granules - bacterium and its waste  
Where are Nocardia spp. found?   Ubiquitous soil saprophytes  
Nocardia causes infection by   Inhalation or direct inoculation  
Most common Nocardia spp.   N. asteroides; N. brasiliensis is most important in tropical areas  
Gram stain characteristics or Nocardia spp.   Gram-variable/modified acid-fast bacilli; filamentous and branching; Gram-variable or "beaded" appearance; alternating gram-positive:gram-negative segements on a filament  
Are Nocardia spp. aerobic or anaerobic?   Strictly aerobic  
How can Nocardia spp. be isolated?   Routine media; w/in 4 days, can require 2-4 weeks; may be difficult - can be overgrown by faster growing organisms  
Nocardia spp. macro   Smooth and moist; or "mould like", grey-white, waxy or powdery; strong mildew odor  
Are Nocardia spp. acid-fast?   Acid-fast using modified Ziehl-Neelsen or Kinyoun acid-fast stain.  
How can Nocardia spp. and other aerobic actinomycetes be differentiated?   Tap Water Agar morphology; Nocardia spp. have recursively branching hyphae with aerial hyphae  
Biochemical characteristics of Nocardia spp.   Hydrolysis of casein, tyrosine, or xanthine  
Nocardia asteroides biochemical characteristics   Doesn't hydrolyze casein, xanthine or tyrosine  
Nocardia brasiliensis biochemical characteristics   Hydrolyzes casein and tyrosine  
Where is Rhodococcus equi found?   Soil saprophyte; associated w/domestic farm animals  
What does Rhodococcus equi cause?   Pulmonary infection that resembles TB  
Rhodococcus equi macro   Colony forms in 2-4 days; glistening, smooth, pink to red; reverse camp test positive  
Rhodococcus equi micro   Gram-positive coccobacillus; sometimes partially acid-fast  
Biochemical characteristics of Rhodococcus equi   Doesn't hydrolyze casein, xanthine, tyrosine  
Tap Water Agar morphology of Rhodococcus equi   No branching  
Where is Streptomyces spp. found   Soil (S. griseus); non-pathogenic; musty smell  
Streptomyces spp. macro   Colonies in 3-5 days at 35C; waxy, white powdery top  
Streptomyces spp. micro   Gram-positive filamentous bacilli; non-acid fast  
Streptomyces spp. morphology on Tap Water Agar   Aerial, tertiary branching on tapwater agar  
Biochemical characteristics of Streptomyces spp.   Hydrolyzes casein, xanthine and tyrosine  
Where are Actinomadura spp. found?   Only in tropics  
What does Actinomadura spp. cause?   Mycetoma  
Actinomadura spp. micro   Gram-positive filamentous bacilli; non acid-fast  
Actinomadura spp. morphology on Tap Water Agar   Aerial, tertiary branching  
Biochemical characteristics of Actinomadura spp   Hydrolyzes casein and tyrosine  
Where is Nocardiopsis spp found?   Soil saprophyte  
What is special about Nocardiopsis spp?   Thermotolerand, can grow at higher temperatures  


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