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Fungus-like Bacteria

Mod 3 Lec 3

QuestionAnswer
What genera are in the Actinomycetes? Major: Actinomyces, Norcardia, Streptomyces Other: Rhodococcus, Actinomadura, Norcardiopsis
What are Actinomycetes, and what were they thought to be? They are higher bacteria; thought to be fungi for years; some form aerial mycelia; clinical manifestations similar to systemic fungal infection
What Actinomycetes is anaerobic? Actinomyces
What Actinomycetes is aerobic? Norcardia, Streptomyces
What Actinomycetes is partially acid-fast? Norcardia
What Actinomycetes is not acid-fast? Actinomyces, Streptomyces
What can all genera of Actinomycetes produce? Granules
What does Actinomyces spp. look like on gram stain? Gram-positive rods; obligate anaerobes
What is seen in direct microscopy that is diagnostic for Actinomyces spp? Yellow sulfer granules - bacterium and its waste
Where are Nocardia spp. found? Ubiquitous soil saprophytes
Nocardia causes infection by Inhalation or direct inoculation
Most common Nocardia spp. N. asteroides; N. brasiliensis is most important in tropical areas
Gram stain characteristics or Nocardia spp. Gram-variable/modified acid-fast bacilli; filamentous and branching; Gram-variable or "beaded" appearance; alternating gram-positive:gram-negative segements on a filament
Are Nocardia spp. aerobic or anaerobic? Strictly aerobic
How can Nocardia spp. be isolated? Routine media; w/in 4 days, can require 2-4 weeks; may be difficult - can be overgrown by faster growing organisms
Nocardia spp. macro Smooth and moist; or "mould like", grey-white, waxy or powdery; strong mildew odor
Are Nocardia spp. acid-fast? Acid-fast using modified Ziehl-Neelsen or Kinyoun acid-fast stain.
How can Nocardia spp. and other aerobic actinomycetes be differentiated? Tap Water Agar morphology; Nocardia spp. have recursively branching hyphae with aerial hyphae
Biochemical characteristics of Nocardia spp. Hydrolysis of casein, tyrosine, or xanthine
Nocardia asteroides biochemical characteristics Doesn't hydrolyze casein, xanthine or tyrosine
Nocardia brasiliensis biochemical characteristics Hydrolyzes casein and tyrosine
Where is Rhodococcus equi found? Soil saprophyte; associated w/domestic farm animals
What does Rhodococcus equi cause? Pulmonary infection that resembles TB
Rhodococcus equi macro Colony forms in 2-4 days; glistening, smooth, pink to red; reverse camp test positive
Rhodococcus equi micro Gram-positive coccobacillus; sometimes partially acid-fast
Biochemical characteristics of Rhodococcus equi Doesn't hydrolyze casein, xanthine, tyrosine
Tap Water Agar morphology of Rhodococcus equi No branching
Where is Streptomyces spp. found Soil (S. griseus); non-pathogenic; musty smell
Streptomyces spp. macro Colonies in 3-5 days at 35C; waxy, white powdery top
Streptomyces spp. micro Gram-positive filamentous bacilli; non-acid fast
Streptomyces spp. morphology on Tap Water Agar Aerial, tertiary branching on tapwater agar
Biochemical characteristics of Streptomyces spp. Hydrolyzes casein, xanthine and tyrosine
Where are Actinomadura spp. found? Only in tropics
What does Actinomadura spp. cause? Mycetoma
Actinomadura spp. micro Gram-positive filamentous bacilli; non acid-fast
Actinomadura spp. morphology on Tap Water Agar Aerial, tertiary branching
Biochemical characteristics of Actinomadura spp Hydrolyzes casein and tyrosine
Where is Nocardiopsis spp found? Soil saprophyte
What is special about Nocardiopsis spp? Thermotolerand, can grow at higher temperatures
Created by: blackicecreamcat