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CDIS Chapter 3.

anterior toward the front
posterior toward the back
ventral toward the abdomen
dorsal toward the back
superior toward the top
inferior toward the bottom
proximal toward the body
distal away from the body
medial toward the middle
lateral toward the side
afferent toward the nervous system
efferent away from the nervous system
CNS includes brain and spinal cord
PNS includes... nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spinal cord
spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spinal cord
sensory information travels.. to the brain
motor information travels... away from the brain
neurons highly specialized cells that make up the nervous system and carry its sensory and motor information
dendrites bring nerve impulses into the cell body
axons take nerve impulses away from the cell body
synapse space where two neurons meet
neurotransmitters chemical agents in the brain that help carry information across the synaptic cleft
mylin sheath a coating around the axon which helps increase the speed at which an impulse travels across a nerve
meninges three membranes that line the skull and enclose the brain and spinal cord
what are the 3 meninges pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater
What are the 3 things that protect the CNS Bone, meninges and fluid
cardiac center controls the heart
vasomotor center controls the blood vessles
respiratory center controls breathing
cerebellum regulates motor and muscular activity (coordination and balance)
cerebrum thinking, problem solving
insular cortex "5th lobe" involved in consciousness
parietal lobe sensory and perceptual information, and comprehending oral and written language
temporal lobe auditory perception, memory, speech *
heschl's gyrus auditory cortex
wernicke's area language comprehension
occipital lobe visual information
what are the organization principles of the brain interconnectedness, hierarchy, specialization
contralaterality bodily sense are processed on opposite sides of the brain
spoken language involves respiratin, phonation, articulation
parts of the upper respiratory system trachea, larynx, oral cavity, nasal cavity
lower respiratory system lungs, bronchi, alveoli
thorax skeleton of the chest
pleura thin sac that attaches to the inner side of the thorax and outer side of the lungs
primary muscles involved in restful breathing
secondary muscles forced inspiration
trachea cartilage tube that runs from oral cavity to lungs
resonance airflow's ongoing vibration as it moves through the pharynx
articulation the act of manipulating airflow submitted by the phonatory system to create highly precise speech sounds
auricle visible portion of outer ear
EAC external auditory canal- conducts sound waves inward
tympanic membrane serves as a loudspeaker
eustachian tube serves as a pressure equalizing tube (PET)
3 bones in the middle ear malleus, incus, stapes
ossicular chain 3 bones connected (vibrations are carried along as mechanical energy)
inner ear fluid filled cavity that resides deep inside the temporal bone
3 major cavities in the inner ear vestibule, semicircular canal, cochlea
tonotopic organization basilar membrane organized by frequency- high to low
3 layers of the tympanic membrane ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
2 regions of the tympanic membrane pars flaccida, pars tensa
impedance the sensitivity in the fluid versus air and how well sound waves travel through it *
Created by: lkp12001