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Robotics Primer

chapter 2

Control theory is the mathematical study of properties of automated control systems ranging from steam engines to airplanes, and much in between. Originated in ancient Greece.
Cybernetics was originally a study and comparison of communication and control processes in biological and artificial systems.
Biomimetic machines with properties similar to those of biological systems. meaning they imitate biological systems in some way.
Analog is one that is continuous in time and amplitude
Analog electronic circuit possess analog signals
Reactive control a means of controlling robots using a collection of prioritized "reflexes"
Emergent Behavior a means of controlling robots using a collection of prioritized "reflexes"
Artificial Life related to robotics but mostly focuses on computational, not physical, systems that exist within a computer, not in the real world.
Thought experiments or gedanken experiments show how on can design simple robots (called vehicles) and get them to produce behaviors that appear very animal-like and life-like.
Braitenberg's Vehicles started out with a single motor and a single light sensor, and gradually progressed to more motors and more sensors, and more interesting connections between them, all using analog electronic circuits.
Photophilic (loving light) a light sensor could be connected directly to the wheels, so the stronger the light, the faster the robot moved as if it were attracted to the light.
Photophobic (afraid of light) in some vehicles the connection was inverted, so the stronger the light, the slower the robot would move, as if it were repulsed by the light or afraid of it.
Excitatory Connection A connection between two sensors and motors in which the stronger the sensory input, the stronger the motor output.
Inhibitory Connection a connection in which the stronger the sensory input, the weaker the motor output.
Artificial Intelligence Internal models of the world, Search through possible solutions, planning and reasoning to solve problems, symbolic representation of information, hierarchical system organization, and sequential program execution.
Shakey used contact sensors and a camera.
Vision-based Navigation using vision to move a robot around.
Types of robot control reactive control, hybrid control, and behavior-based control.
The first modern robot W.Grey Walter's tortoise. was constructed and controlled using the principles of cybernetics.
Braitenberg's vehicles provided more examples of cybernetics and biomimetic principles.