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Essential terms for STAAR-EOC Biology

cell differentiation process by which a new cell becomes more specialized, i.e becomes a certain cell in the body (brain cell, skin cell, blood cell)
homeostasis process by which a cell maintains a constant internal environment. Cells excrete waste and take in nutrients to maintain a healthy state.
prokaryotes • cells that have no nucleus • no membrane bound organelles • do have ribosomes and genetic material
eukaryotes • cells that have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
diffusion movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
osmosis movement of WATER through a selectively permeable membrane from a high concentration to a low concentration
active transport moving material from a low concentration to high concentration; takes cell energy
passive transport moving materials with the concentration gradient (from a high to low concentration); does not require energy
facilitated transport Type of passive transport; uses proteins to move molecules from a high to low concentration
isotonic An environment in which the water and solute concentrations are equal inside and outside cell. Cell stays the same size.
hypertonic An environment in which solute concentration is greater outside the cell and water is higher inside the cell, so water flows out of the cell.
hypotonic An environment in which solute concentrations are greater inside the cell and water is higher outside the cell, so water flows into the cell.
endocytosis A cell takes material into itself (cell “eating”); it wraps it up in its cell membrane and pulls it inside.
exocytosis active transport involving the use of a lipid membrane to transport materiel out of the cell
carbohydrate AKA “sugar” or “starch”; ring-shaped 5 carbon sugar. Used as a quick source of energy. Its monomer is a monosaccharide
protein Used to provide structural support in the body. Monomers: chain of amino acids (CHON). Enzymes are proteins.
nucleic acid A polymer made of monomers called nucleotides (CHONP) that store genetic information
mitosis Process of cell division. Results in 2 daughter cells identical to the parent cell. Used for growth and repair of cells.
somatic cells any body cell (brain cell, skin cells, etc... ) other than gametes (sex cells like sperm and egg)
sister chromatids a pair of identical chromosomes as a result of DNA replication
diploid 2n; double set of chromosomes
haploid n; single set of chromosomes; half the gentic material
cancer when cells divide and grow uncontrollably as a result of an error in the cell cycle
enzyme Proteins that catalyze reactions by lowering the activation energy needed; speeds up the reaction. (ends in -ase)
monomer a single unit or building block of a larger biomolecule
polymer the product of dehydration synthesis
virus A non-living particle made of DNA or RNA, and a protein shell; can only reproduce using a living cell’s machinery.
capsid protein coat on the exterior of viruses
bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria; -phage = destroy
lytic infection type of viral reproduction - 1.virus enters cell, 2.makes copies,and,3.explodes the cell to release offspring
lysogenic infection type of viral reproduction - 1.virus enters cell, 2.embeds cell’s DNA, 3.viral DNA is copied when the host cell replicates
vaccine weakened/killed microbes used to train the body's immune system to recognize, destroy and "remember" it
chloroplasts Organelle that performs photosynthesis in plants and algae
mitochondria organelle which converts glucose to ATP (energy)
synthesis to make, put together
Rough ER organelle involved in protein production; embeded with ribosomes
genome all of an organisms genetic material
interphase part of the cell cycle where a cell spends most of its life. Growth occurs for the cell. Made up of the G1, S phase, and G2 phases.
prophase chromatin condenses to form chromosomes
metaphase the lining up of chromosomes along the equator of the cell during nuclear division
cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm and organelles during nuclear division
S Phase part of cell cycle involving DNA replication. Occurs during Interphase
G-Zero Phase a "pit stop" where a cell leaves the cell cycle and stops replicating
Lysosomes organelle containing enzymes; serves as the digestive system of the cell
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