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Anatomy - Ch. 2

Anatomy - Chapter 2 - Cytology

Cytology is the scientific study of cellular structure and function
True or False; cellular function = METABOLISM True
True or False; cells aren't important from a clinical perspective because many body dysfunctions and diseases do NOT originate at the cellular level. False
The basis of disease is what? breakdown in the proper functioning of cells (whether caused by microorganisms, inherited defects or by injury)
True or False; Aging occurs at the cellular level? True
Cell Theory key points Every living organism is made of cells Cells arise only through the division of pre-existing cells rather than springing spontaneously from nonliving matter All cells have the same basic chemical components
Simple Squamous cell description thin, flat, scaly shape
line esophagus and form surface layer of skin simple squamous
Simple Cuboidal cell description squarish, about equal in height and width
liver cells simple cuboidal cells
Simple Columnar cell description distinctly taller than wide
inner lining of intestines Simple Columnar cells
Polygonal cells descriptions irregular angular shapes with four or more sides
Stellate cells descriptions multiple pointed processes give cells a somewhat starlike shape
cell bodies of nerve cells Stellate cells
Spheroid to ovoid cells descriptions round to oval
egg cells and white blood cells Spheroid to ovoid
Discoid cells descriptions disc-shaped, as in red blood cells
Fusiform cells descriptions spindle-shaped; elongated, with a thick middle and tapered ends
smooth muscle cells Fusiform cells
Fibrous cells descriptions long, slender, and threadlike
skeletal muscle cells and the axons (nerve fibers) of nerve cells Fibrous cells
Plasma membrane (cell membrane) forms the surface boundary of the cell
cytoplasm Material between plasma membrane and nucleus
nucleoplasm Material within the nucleus
Functions of Membrane Proteins: Receptor Binds to chemical messengers such as hormones sent by other cells
Functions of Membrane Proteins: Enzyme Breaks down a chemical messenger and terminates its effect on the target cell.
Functions of Membrane Proteins: Channel protein A channel that is constantly open and allows solutes to pass into and out of the cell
Functions of Membrane Proteins: Gated channel A gated channel that opens and closes to allow solutes through only at certain times
Functions of Membrane Proteins: Cell-identity marker A glycoprotein acting as a cell-identity marker distingushing the body's own cells from foreign cells.
Functions of Membrane Proteins: Cell-adhesion molecule (CAM) A (CAM) that binds one cell to another
Microvilli Plasma membrane extension; Increase surface area; Brush border
Cilia Primary cilium; Motile cilia; Axoneme – microtubules; Dynein – motor protein;
Flagella Long, singular cilium; Sperm cell
Surface extensions: Microvilli best developed on cells that specialize in absorption (i.e., intestines) function to increase the surface are of cells 15-40 times more absorptive surface area
Surface extensions: Cilia hair-like processes that extend from cells some sensory (inner ear) others function to move things (respiratory tract, uterine tubes)
Surface extensions: Flagella longer and fewer (only 1 or 2 per cell) only human cell to have one is the male sex cell or sperm - locomotive structure
At the cell surface are certain arrangements of proteins called... intercellular junctions
intercellular junctions Link cells together and attach them to the extracellular material
3 types of intercellular junctions 1) tight junctions 2) desmosomes 3) gap junctions
Tight Junctions Join it tightly to the neighboring cells Zipperlike Seals off intercellular space and makes it difficult for substances to pass between cells
Desmosomes A patch that holds cells together. More like a snap than a zipper. Not continuous. Resists mechanical stress.
Gap (Communicating) Junctions A gap junction is ringlike and surrounds a water-filled channel Fluids can diffuse through the channel directly from the cytoplasm of one cell into the next
intracellular fluid (ICF) fluid within the cell (the cytosol)
All body fluids not contained in the cells are collectively called.. extracellular fluid (ECF) or tissue (interstitial) fluid
Blood plasma, lymph, and cerebrospinal fluid are examples of what? extracellular fluid (ECF)
Structures in the cytoplasm are classified into three groups: Cytoskeleton, Inclusions, Organelles; Embedded in a clear gel: the cytosol
Cytoskeleton a supportive framework of protein filaments and tubules
Inclusions non metabolically active parts of the cell stored cell products such as lipids and pigments foreign bodies such as dust and bacteria
The Nucleus: Description Round; Near center of cell; Largest organelle; Nucleoplasm (cytoplasm equivalent);
Organelles The minute, metabolically active structures within a cell are called organelles (literally “little organs”) because they are to the cell what organs are to the body—structures that play individual roles in the survival of the whole
Ribosomes small granules of protein and ribonucleic acid (RNA); Synthesize proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum a system of interconnected flattened membrane
rough endoplasmic reticulum covered with ribosomes
smooth endoplasmic reticulum no ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum; Action synthesizes steroids and other lipids, detoxifies alcohol and other drugs, and manufactures all of the membranes of the cell
Golgi Complex Stack of flattened membranous sacs
Golgi Complex; Action Synthesize carbohydrates
Lysosome a package of enzymes contained in a single unit membrane. (apoptosis)
apoptosis “cell suicide” in which cells that are no longer needed undergo a prearranged death
Mitochondria are organelles specialized for ATP synthesis; Sac-like; Powerhouse of the cell
centriole a bundle of microtubules
centrosome a small, clear patch of cytoplasm that contain a pair of mutually perpendicular centrioles; These centrioles play a role in cell division
This cell cycle is divided into four main phases G1,S,G2,and M
The Cell Cycle – The first gap (G1) phase a cell synthesizes proteins, grows, and carries out its preordained tasks for the body
The Cell Cycle – synthesis (S) phase a cell carries out DNA replication
A cell begins the __ phase with 46 molecules of DNA and ends this phase with 92 The cell then has two identical sets of DNA molecules, which are available to be divided up between daughter cells at the next cell division synthesis (S) phase
The Cell Cycle - second gap (G2) phase a cell finishes replicating its centrioles and synthesizes enzymes that control cell division
The Cell Cycle – mitotic (M) phase the period in which a cell replicates its nucleus, divides its DNA into two identical sets
Interphase Phases G1, S, and G2 are collectively called interphase — the time between M phases
Mitosis cells divide by two mechanisms
Meiosis only sex cells
Mitosis; Farther functions the development of an individual continued growth of all the organs after birth the replacement of cells that die the repair of damaged tissues
Four phases of mitosis are recognizable as prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Prophase Chromatin condenses. Nucleoli and nuclear envelope break down. Spindle fibers grow from centrioles. Centrioles migrate to opposite poles of cell
Metaphase Chromosomes lie along midline of cell. Some spindle fibers attach to kinetochores. Fibers of aster attach to plasma membrane.
Anaphase Centromeres divide in two. Spindle fibers pull sister chromatids to opposite poles of cell. Each pole now has an identical set of genes.
Telophase Chromosomes gather at each pole of cell. Chromatin decondenses. New nuclear envelope appears at each pole. Mitotic spindle vanishes.
Cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm
cleavage furrow a crease around the equator of the cell, and the cell eventually pinches in two
Stem Cells mmature cells with the ability to develop into one or more types of mature, specialized cells
Adult stem (AS) cells multiply and replace older cells that are lost to damage or normal cellular turnover
Embryonic stem (ES) cells comprise human embryos of up to 150 cells
Created by: sinteque



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