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A & P I

Study Guide for Chem and Cell Test

What determines atomic weight? (1) The mass of a single atom (2) It is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus (p+n)
What is an electron? small negatively charged subatomic particle
When atoms combine, they gain, lose or share what? electrons
What is an isotope? atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic weights
Which type of bond is the weakest? hydrogen bond
What is an acid? any substance that releases a hydrogen ion (H+) when in solution; "proton donor"
What percentage of body weight is water? almost 70% (per her PP)
What are the 8 amino acids called that must be included in your diet? essential amino acides; isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, trypotophan, valine
What are fats made up of? glycerol and fatty acids
What is the lipid that is found in the cell membrane called? phosopholipids
What is DNA? deoxyribonucleic acid; genetic material of the cell that carries the chemical "blue print" of the body
What is an ionic bond? a chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another
How many amino acids are there? 20
The elements carbon, hydrogen,nitrogen and oxygen make up what percentage of the human body? 96%
What is the basis unit of structure and function in the human body? cell
What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus? Synthesizes carbohydrates, combines it with protein, and packages the product as globules of glycoprotein
WHAT IS THE FUNTION OF THE MITOCHONDRIA? Catabolism; ATP synthesis; a cell’s “power plants”
What allows sperm to move? flagella
Skin cells are held together by what? desomsome; like small spot welds that hold adjacent cells together
Where is DNA found in the cell? nucleus
What is a lysosome? vesicles that have pinched off from the Golgi Apparatus
When DNA appears as thread like material what is it called? chromatin
In the human body what is the largest cell? human egg or ovum
What is hypertonic solution? the concentration of solute molecules inside the cell is lower than the concentration outside the cell so water moves out; causing the cell to shrivel
What is isotonic solution? concentration of solute is the same inside the cell as outside the cell; water will diffuse in and out of a cell at an equal rate
What is hypotonic solution? concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than the concentration inside the cell so water moves in; the cell will rupture
What is phagocytosis? the taking in of large molecules such as bacteria and viruses
What is the correct order of the phases of mitosis? (1) Prophase (2) Metaphase (3) Anaphase (4) Telophase
What does it mean to be haploid compared to diploid? Haploid is a single set of chromosomes and diploid is two sets of chromosomes
function of plasma membrane serves as the boundary of the cell, maintains its integrity; protein molecules embedded in plasma membrane perform various functions; for example, they serve as markers that identify cells of each individual, as receptor molecules for certain hormones & o
function of endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes attached to rough ER synthesize proteins that leaves cells via Golgi complex; smooth ER synthesizes lipids incorporated in cell membranes, steroid hormones, and certain carbohydrates used to form glycoproteins
function of nucleoli Plays an essential role in the formation of ribosomes
function of nucleus Houses the genetic code, which in turns dictates protein synthesis, thereby playing an essential role in other cell activities, namely, cell transport, metabolism, and growth
function of ribosomes site of protein synthesis; a cell's "protein factor"
function of lysosomes a cell's digestive factor
mRNA messenger RNA; a single uncoiled strand of RNA that transmits information from DNA for use during protein synthesis
rRNA ribosomal RNA; rna in a globular shape, is the major constitutent of the ribosomes
tRNA transfer RNA; a single strand of RNA folded back on itself in a hair pin fashion allowing some complementary bases to pair up
transcription takes place in the nucleus
translation the process of assembling protein molecules from information encoded in mRNA
translocation RNA produced from DNA in this process
diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration
osmosis is the moving of water across a membrane from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration
Created by: malrey3



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