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Physio Ch. 6 part 2

QuestionAnswer
amino acid neurotransmitters are...and include... major CNS neurotransmitters...glutamate, gaba and glycine
glutamate is...gaba is...and glycine is... excitatory in brain...inhibitory in brain (opens cl channels)...inhibitory in spinal cord and brain stem (opens cl channels)
neuropeptides are made of...and they act as... two or more amino acids...neurotransmitters
neuropeptides are...meaning their receptors respond to... endogenous(made from within) opiods...opiates (codeine and morphine)
substance P neurotransmitter for pain pathway
gasses also work as neurotransmitter via...but dont bind to...and may activate... simple diffusuion from cell to cell..receptors...second messenger systems
example of gas neurotransmitters nitric oxide and carbon monoxide
ATP and adenosine are neuromodulators for sleep/wake cycle
CNS forebrain contains cerebrum (integration) and diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus)
cerebral hemispheres: cortex gray matter inside and white matter outside (tracts)
thalamus...hypothalamus... relay center...endocrine(pituitary) and neural coordination
cerebellum coordination of movement (fine tuned)
brainstem is the ...between..and includes relay...spinal cord and brain...midbrain, pons and medulla
midbrain heart rate
pons and midbrain breathing
spinal cord: dorsal horns sensory in
ventral horns motor out
white columns outside
gray = cell bodies
PNS spinal nerves afferent= dorsal roots(sensory) and efferent=ventral (motor)
somatic nervous system controls...and links... skeletal muscles...CNS to skeletal muscle effector
somatic ns has...and one... one neuron (cell body in spinal cord)..synapse in PNS at effector
somatic ns is only...and its neurotransmitter is... excitatory..ACh, nicotinic
Autonomic ns controls...and links...and has..synapses in PNS organs and glands...CNS to non-skeletal muscle tissue...preganglionic fiber to ganglion and postganglionic fiber to effector
autonomic ns can be either..and its neurotransmitters are excitatory and inhibitory...ach, ne, e
ans divides into sympathetic and parasymp
sympathetic division=...and has...preganglionic fibers to... thoracolumbar divison...short...sympathetic trunk or collateral ganglia
symp has ...postganglionic fibers to... long..effector
symp neurotransmitters: 1st synapse=...2nd synapse=... ACh nicotinic at pre-post synapse...NE, E and some ACh (sweat glands)at effector
adrenal medulla serves as the...in the symp division...and results in direct postanglionic cell...release of E to the bloodstream as a hormone
parasymp divison = ...and has...preganglionic fiber and...postganglionic fibers to... craniosacral divison...long...short...effector
neurotransmitter of parasymp ach nicotinic at pre-post synapse and ach muscarinic at effector
brain and spinal cord is surrounded by...which is produced by CSF...ependymal cells of choroid plexus
CSF circulates in...and has...flow to... 4 ventricles and subarachnoid space...one way...large surface veins of the brain
csf functions to...and can cause problems if cushion...tehre is too much (hydrocephalus) which increases pressure and may reduce blood flow or too little which loses the cushion
BBBis located in...which is the site of... small blood vessels...exchange
capillaries have..but BBB doesn't gaps
BBB is also located in the..where it impacts... choroid plexus...csf
BBB has...junctions between cells and the cell membrane has... tight...specific transporters
BBB functions to limit exchange of material between blood and brain extracellular fluid
lipid soluble chemicals can...such as... diffuse through the barrier easily...nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, heroin, barbiturates
polar substances must be transported through the BBB
BBB regulates...by blocking... components of the CSF...heavy metals
Created by: handrzej