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Gen. Med

Test 1

SAMPLE means S-signs and symptoms, A- allergies, M- medications, P- pertinent past medical history, L- last oral intake, E- events leading up to this condition
Signs are what you see or feel
Symptoms are what the individual tells you
OPQRST stands for what O-onset, P- provocation, Q- quality, R- region, radiation, relief, recurrence, S- severity, T- timing
Vital signs are Pulse, respirations, blood pressure, skin assessment, temperature, capillary refill, pulse oximetry.
Cardiovascular Red Flags Chest pain during exertion, fatigue or shortness, dizziness, difficulty breathing while laying down.
Dextrocardia is what heart located on right side of the chest instead of the left.
Marfan's syndrome is what enlarged heart.
Pulmonary Red Flags abnormal coughing, abnormal shortness of breath at rest, abnormal breath sounds, asthma.
Musculoskeletal Red Flags chronic joint or spinal instability, unhealed fracture/ligament/muscular injury, muscle weakness.
Neurological Red Flags cervical spine instability, history of seizures, history of head injury, history of burners.
Ocular Red Flags vision in only one eye, severe myopia (nearsightedness), retinal detachment or tear.
Dental Red Flags bleeding gums, lesions in the mouth, loose or displaced teeth, loose caps.
Gastrointestinal Red Flags organomegaly, history of hepatitis or infectious mononucleosis.
Genitourinary Red Flags one kidney or kidney disease, hernia, pain with urination.
Dermatological Red Flags herpes, dermatities, warts, fungal infection.
Heat Related Red Flags cardiac disease, uncontrolled diabetes, hyperextension, excessive heat cramps.
Disqualifying Conditions for Sport Participation Atlantoaxial instability (C1&C2), bleeding disorders, cardiovasular disease, cerebral palsy, diabetes mellitus, diarrhea, eating disorder.
What are imaging modalities x-ray, bone scan, CT scan, MRI, ultrasound
What are hot spots? areas of inflammation or injury to a bone will appear dark on a bone scan.
On a X-ray lungs appear darker why? because air does not absorb radiation.
Fluroscopy is what? is a type of radiography that can be performed when the clinician wants to see a "live" image to determine the size, shape, and movement of tissue.
Myleogram is what? looking at nerves.
Aspirin comes from where? tree bark.
KNAPP vs. North Western kid with cardiac condition had heart transplant team physician would not let him play.
What are different kinds of medicines can you take orally? capsules, powders, gel, ecotrin.
What happens to pills in your body? they are ingested, absorbed, processed, and eliminated.
Liver is the main organ for what? metabolizing drugs.
What is the fastest way to feel drugs affects? IV
What would make the body absorb a pills affects slowly? the more layers there are the slower the body absorbs the effects.
Normal systolic above hundred
Normal diastolic below hundred
First company of aspirin is what? BAYER
Pure food and drug act was when? 1906
Pure food and drug act is can't misbrand anything intentionally.
Food drug and cosmetic act was when? 1938
The food drug and cosmetic act lead to what being established? FDA
The 1950s you were able to distinguish between what? non prescription drugs and prescription drugs.
FDA was established in what year? 1938
When was the Controlled Substance Act? 1970
What produced drug schedules? the Controlled Substance Act
Drug Schedule 1 has the highest potential of abuse.
Examples of drug schedule 1 are heroin and LSD
What drug schedule has no known medical uses? 1
Drug schedule 2 has a high potential of abuse
What drug schedule has some medical usage? 2
What drugs have a high level of addiction? oxycotin and percocete
What drugs have the highest pain management? oxycotin and percocete
What drug schedule has a lower potential of abuse? 3
What is an example of drug schedule 2? oxcotin and percocete
What is an example of drug schedule 3? vikodin
What drug schedule has a low chance of abuse? 4
What are examples of drug schedule 4? zanex, darveset, and valium.
What drug schedule has the lowest chance of abuse but is still restricted? 5
What is an example of drug schedule 5? cough meds.
FDA determines what? how the drugs classified.
A PA can not give what drug schedule prescriptions in NC? 1 and 2.
When do generics come to market? 17 years after the patent wore off.
There are how many over the counter medicines available today? 3,000
Generics vs. name brand? Generic drugs may not have the same filter as a name brand drug.
Does generic and name brand drugs have the same therapeutic equivalent? Yes
You can't have medicines in what? a glass case
Medicines have to be in what? a closed and locked case
Is temp. important when storing drugs? yes
What year was the American Pharmaceutical Association developed? late 1800s
All drugs have how many names? 3
What names do drugs how? a chemical, generic, and trade name
How many steps are there for the drug approval process? 4
Step 1 of the drug approval process is? lab and animal testing
Step 2 of drug approval process is? company files for Investigational New Drug with the FDA
Step 3 of drug approval process is? initiate clinical studies
Phase 1 of step 3 is what? (1 year) using human subjects they evaluate metabolism and adverse effects
Phase 2 of step 3 is what? (2 years) using human subjects they determine therapeutic effects and dose
Phase 3 of step 3 is what? (3 years) using human subjects they determine safety and efficacy
Step 4 of the drug approval process is? FDA review
Pharmacodynamics is what? how a drug effects the body
Efficacy is what? whether the drug works or not
The lowest dose capable of producing a perceivable response is called what? the threshold
Therapeutic index is what? range in which desired effects are produced
What is pharmacokinetics? what the body does to or with the drug
Three modes of transportation that drugs use to cross the cell membranes? filtration, diffusion, active transport
Created by: danreid