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NCSF Unit One

Functional Anatomy/Biomechanics

QuestionAnswer
Tough fibrous band of connective tissue that supports internal organs and holds bones together properly in joints. Ligament
A thickened connective tissue that envelops a muscle or a group of muscles. Muscle Fascia
A point of articulation between two or more bones. Joint
A tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones. Tendon
Contains synovial fluid and allows for considerable movement between articulating bones. Synovial Joints
A tiny fluid-filled sac that functions as a gliding surface to reduce friction between tissues of the body. Bursa
A protein found within the myofibril that functions with myosin to facilitate muscle contractions. Actin
A contractile protein in muscle cells responsible for the elastic and contractile properties of muscles. Myosin
Threadlike fibrils that make up the contractile part of a striated muscle fiber. Myofibrils
Uniting two bones by means of either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. Cartilaginous
Filaments made up of actin and myosin that are structural units of a myofibril. Myofilaments
A tough, elastic, fibrous connective tissue found in various parts of the body, such as the joints, outer ear, and larynx. Hyaline Cartilage
The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons. Periosteum
Cartilage that allows for greater movement capabilities due to its flexible nature. Fibrocartilage
Bone mineral density (BMD) that is lower than normal. Osteopenia
The disease state of demineralized bony tissue. Osteoporosis
The mineral content of bone. Bone Mass
The mineral content in a given volume of bone used as a measure of bony health and in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Bone Mineral Density
The transverse cartilaginous plate near the end of a child's bone that is responsible for the lengthening growth of the bone. Epiphyseal Plates
Joints that stretch further than a normal range of motion. Hyperextension
A reference posture used in anatomical description in which the subject stands erect with feet parallel and arms adducted and supinated, with palms facing forward. Anatomical Position
The movement of the ball of the foot toward the shin. Dorsi Flexion
Movement at the ankle used to raise the heel from the ground. Plantar Flexion
Movement away from the midline of the body. Abduction
Movement toward the midline of the body. Adduction
The action at the shoulder and hip joint where the articulating bone is rotated away from the body. External Rotation
The action at the shoulder and hip joint where the articulating bone is rotated toward the body from anatomical position. Internal Rotation
A plate or ring of fibrocartilage attached to the joint capsule and separating the articular surface of the bone. Articular discs
A sac enclosing a joint, formed by an outer fibrous membrane and inner synovial membrane. Joint Capsule
A layer of connective tissue which line the joint and produces synovial fluid. Synovial Membrane
The median plane of the body. Midline
Placed before or in front. Anterior
Located behind a part or toward the rear. Posterior
Situated or extending away from the medial plane of the body. Lateral
To bend; Flexion
To straighten or extend Extension
Rotation of the forearm which crosses the radius & ulna, palms face posterior/down Pronation
Rotation of the forearm which crosses the radius & ulna, palms face anteriorly/up Supination
Movement away from the midline Horizontal Abduction
Movement toward the midline Horizontal Adduction
The turning of a structure around its long axis. Rotation
A dynamic structure constantly undergoing changes in the body. Bone
The skull, vertebral column, hyoid bone, and rib cage. Axial Skeleton
The organic compounds of protein, mainly in the form of collagen fiber, represent 33% of bone, while the mineral content represents the other 67%.
Three behaviors are critical to promote good bone development Consume plenty of Vitamin D & Calcium, Regular physical activity, and Resistance training.
The three major classifications of joints fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
Plane Joint Spinal Vertabrae
Pivot Joint neck
Hinge Joint knee/elbow
Condyloid Joint wrist
Saddle Joint thumb
Ball and Socket Joint Hip/Shoulder
The ability of a joint to move is dependent upon 3 factors. Muscular attachment location/insertion site, Type of joint, Shape of the articular surface
Identify the five regions of the spine from top to bottom. Cervical(7), Thoracic(12), Lumbar(5), Sacrum(1), Coccyx(1)
Most disc-related injuries occur from repetitive microtraumas.
Sagittal Plane Transverse Axis (flexion, extension)
Transverse Plane Longitudinal Axis (horizontal abduction/adduction)
Frontal Plane Anterio-Posterior Axis (inversion, eversion)
Prime mover that supports trunk flexion. Rectus Abdominis
Prime mover that supports trunk rotation. External/Internal Obliques
Anterior Pelvic Tilt Increases the convexity (lordosis) of the lumbar spine and may place excessive stress on the posterior aspects of the discs in the region.
Glenohumeral joint Capable of movement in all planes, including hyperextension.
The four muscles of the rotator cuff. Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Subscapularis
The upper body muscle that causes both shoulder extension and shoulder adduction. Latissimus dorsi
The muscle used to initiate the seated row via scapular retraction. Rhomboids
The humerus is horizontally adducted by the pectoralis major, while the deltoid causes horizontal abduction.
The hip extensor muscle primarily responsible for the squat. Gluteus maximus
The hip extensor muscle primarily responsible for the romainian deadlift. Biceps Femoris
A knee muscle that is also a hip flexor. rectus femoris
After the age of 30, women will lose approximately how much bone mass per decade? 8%
The rate, or a measure of the rate, of motion. Velocity
How quickly a position changes. Speed
The capacity to do work. Energy
Time rate of doing work or (Force x Distance) / Time Power
The energy possessed by a body because of its motion. Kinetic Energy
A change in the velocity of an object. Acceleration
Transfer of energy by a force acting to displace a body. Work
The turning effect created by a force about an axis. Torque
A unit of power in the International System of Units equal to one joule per second. Watt
Energy stored by an object by virtue of its position. Potential Energy
Change in position that occurs when all points on an object move the same distance, in the same direction, and at the same time. Linear Motion
Mass of an object times the linear velocity of the object. Linear Momentum
Asymmetrical Load A single sided or unbalanced load
Balance A stable state characterized by the cancellation of all forces by equal, opposing forces.
Resistance Arm The distance between the fulcrum and the point of resistance.
Force Couples Torque created about an axis by a pair of oppositely directed forces.
Center of Gravity The point where the mass of the object is equally balanced.
Kinetic Chain A group of body segments connected by joints so that the segments operate together to provide a wide range of motion for the limb.
Rotational Inertia As a rotating body spins about an internal or external axis (either fixed or unfixed), it opposes any change in the body's speed of rotation that may be caused by torque.
Angular Momentum The product of the momentum of a rotating body and its distance from the axis of rotation. In lay terms, angular momentum can be thought as the "amount of rotation" of the body.
Antagonist The role of a muscle whose torque opposes the action.
Agonist The role of a muscle whose torque aids the action, often referred to as the prime mover.
Strength Balance The force production relationship between opposing muscles or muscle groups.
Name two internal forces that act on the body. Tensile Forces (stretching force) and Compressive Force (pushing force)
Name two external forces that act on the body. Contact Force (wind, water, the ground) and Frictional Force
General Motion is a combination of: Linear Motion & Angular Motion
If the starting position is known, a particular motion can be quantified by: Speed & Velocity
Positive Work is known as Concentric Contraction
Negative Work is known as Eccentric Contraction
Mechanical Energy is held in 2 forms: Kinetic (energy in motion) & Potential
W (work) / T (time to do work) = Power
As a muscle's contraction velocity increases, its maximal force output decreases.
Power Output is dependent upon two factors: Quantity of power & Time it is sustained.
The torques created by the muscles of the body are dependent upon force & attachment location.
Gravity pulls on the center of mass of an object . . . at the rate of 9.81 m/sec2
Newton's First Law If an object is motionless, it will remain that way unless a force acts upon it.
Newton's Second Law If an external force is applied to an object, the object will change speed/direction.
Newton's Third Law If an object exerts force on another object, the reacting force from the other object will be equal and opposite.
Three variables that can be manipulated to achieve bodily stability. Base of support, Height of the center of gravity, Line of gravitational pull.
Four components that make up the inner unit of the lumbopelvic region: Transverse abdominis, Pelvic floor, Multifidus, Diaphragm
Transverse abdominis/Multifidus The primary stabilizer for the lumbopelvic region.
The amount of the rotational inertia produced is dependent upon three factors . . . Total mass, Distribution of the mass, Angular velocity
Contractile Velocity Has the greatest effect on a measured power output.
Created by: Wonderwoman65