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Physio Ch. 2

atoms consist of protons, neutrons and electrons
protons have a..and are located in the... positive charge...nucleus
neutrons have a...and are in the... neutral charge...nucleus
electrons have a...and are located in the... negative charge...orbitals around the nucleus
elements atoms with same properties
ions are atoms with a charge
cations postive charge
anion negative charge
electrolytes are ions in the...which basically means they are... plasma, exchanged w/ cells and interstitial circulation
molecules are bonds between 2 similar atoms
molecules are put together via covalent and ionic bonds
covalent bonds require 2 or more atoms to share electrons
ionic bonds require 2 atoms to form ions and their charges attract one another
compounds are 2 or more different types of atoms put together
free radicals have extra energy
free radicals can be beneficial in the... immune system by destroying pathogens and bad cells
free radicals are harmufl because they can disrupt DNA and cell membranes
free radicals examples would be vitamin c and antioxidants
polar molecules have slight seperation in charge...h2o (hydrogen is slightly + and o is slightly -)
polar covalent bonds are very...and are located... strong...within molecules
hydrogen bonds are...between... weak bonds...2 different molecules
hydrogen bonds between molecules would be water
hydrogen bonds within molecules would be proteins
water can be put together via covalent bonds, polar bonds, hydrogen bonds between molecules
hydrolysis reactions use water to split a molecule (catabolism)
dehydration or condensation reactions...water... take...out to put something together (anabolism)
solutions consist of solute, solvent and solubility
concentration of solutions is measured as amount of solute per unit solvent (moles per liter)
moles are always 6 x 10^23 atoms or molecules
moles depend on the atomic weight of atoms
molecular weight of a molecule is the sum of atomic weights of all atoms in molecule
solubility in water, a solute can be... hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphipathic
hydrophobic means that the solute...and would be bonded via... loves water...polar or ionic bonds
hydrophobic solutes are...and would be bonded via... water hating...non polar bonds
amphipathic means that the solute has one end hydrophilic and the other hydrophobic
examples of amphipathic things phospholipids and proteins
acids are measured as hydrogen content
acids release a free H+
HCl-> H+ + Cl-
H2CO3 (carbonic acid)<-> H+ + HCO3-(bicarbonate)
bases release...or can accept... free OH-...H+
NaOH -> Na+ + OH-
pH is measured on a scale 0-14
o-7 is... acidic like stomach pH 2
7 = neutral
above 7-14 is basic (alkaline)
blood pH is 7.35-7.45
pH = -log[H+]
[H+] = 10-5mol/L pH 5
each step in pH is a... tenfold change in [H+]
major elements of organic molecules C, N, O, H, S
organic molecules are bonded through covalent bonds
organic molecules are build from macromolecules made up of monomers
oranic molcules undergo dehydration or synthesis reactions
organic molecules are broken down via hydrolysis reactions
major classes of organic molcules carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
carbohydrates have a... carbon backbone
carbohydrates are made up of hydrated carbon atoms
carbos have either... monosaccharide, disaccharide (dehydration) or polysaccharide (dehydration)
carbos function to provide energy or quick fuel for ATP
carbos convert glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver
lipids are made up of C, H and some other elements like O and P
lipids are...and low... nonpolar...water solubility
types of lipids fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids and steriods
fatty acids are made of a hydrocarbon chain
fatty acids are building blocks for other lipids
fatty acids do somne cell regulation
triglycerides are made of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
triglycerides are used for energy storage in adipose tissue
triglycerides are a problem in blood vessels
phospholipids are made of glycerol, 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group (-)
phospholipids are considered amphipathic
phospholipids make up the cell membrane
steriods have the unique ring structure
proteins are made up of C H N O
proteins have...monomers amino acids
polypeptides are put together via dehydration or condensation reactions
primary protein structure which and in what order
secondary protein structure conformation of amino acids into helix or sheet
tertiary structure of proteins 3D shape
quarternary structure of proteins multimeric proteins like hemoglobin
protein's structure is for... skeletal muscles
proteins...enzymes regulate
protines also do movement
nucleic acids are made of nucletide monomers
nucleotide monomers consist of phosphate, sugar and nitrogenous base
nucleotides are put together via dehydration and condensation reactions
DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid contains the genetic material that tells cells how to make proteins and regulates when things happen in the cell
DNA has the...which is made up of... double helix...phosphate, deoxyribose sugar and complementary bases
DNA adenine goes with...and cytosine goes with.. thymine...guanine
RNA or ribonucleic acid performs protein synthesis
RNA has just a...made up of... singe strand...phosphate, ribose sugar and adenine, uracil, cytosine, guanine
3 types of RNA mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
ATP or adenosine triphosphate is made up of 1 nucleotide so its very small
atp consists of 3 phosphate groups, ribose sugar and adenine base
other organics are considered combination molecules
glycoproteins are made of carbos bonded to amino acid side chains
glycolipids are carbos bonded to lipids
glycoproteins and glycolipids are cell markers
Created by: handrzej



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