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Physio Ch. 1

cell membrane is for boundary
cytoplasm is..and contains... outside nucleus/inside cells ...cytosol
organelles are like the organs of the cell
nuclui have the blueprints
inclusions are storage areas ex. glyocgen storage
4 categories of cell types epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective
tissues correspond to cell types
organs are made of two or more tissues
organs have...such as... functional units...nephron in kidney and capillaries
circulatory system does...of... transport...nutrients, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, gases
respiratory is gas exchange between outside and inside body
digestive system breaks down food and absorbs it
urinary cell waste excretion
musculoskeletal movement/head production/protection
immune protection from pathogens and search/destroy cancer cells
nervous system performs integration, regulation and communication at a fast rate
endocrine same as nervous but slower rate
reproductive produce gametes and maintain baby
integ protection, thermoregulation, excretion of cellular waste
organisms are made up of multiple organ systems
cells perform the job
cells are capable of basic life functions such as metabolism and reproduction
organisms reli on cells for...and organs/organ systems for... performance of basic life function...providing cells with requirements
external environment is considered...and is our.. variable...source of nutrients and location of waste disposal
internal environment is considered relatively stable or predictable
internal environment is responsible for maintenance of extracellular fluid for exchange
internalenv. is in contact with cells
body fluid compartments extracellular and intra
extracellular has plasma (fluid component of blood) and interstitial fluid (inbetween cells)
interstitial fluid is in the interstitium
intracellular fluid is made up of cytosol
plasma and interstitial fluid at the level of the tissue...but... are basically identical...plasma has a higher protein content
intracellular fluid components...and have different... vary by cell type (exocrine glands = oil, sebaceous, sweat)...proteins, ions, etc
adipose = ct
dct = collagen
approximately ....% of total body weight is fluid. what is the makeup 60...2/3 is intra, 1/3 is extra (1/5-1/4 = plasma, 4/5-3-4= interstitial fluid)
fluid moves among compartments (plasma and interstitium and extra/intra)
homeostasis is the maintenance of aphysiological variable within an acceptable range (relatively constant internal environment regardless of external environment)
example of homeostasis in blood glucose level should be 60-120 mg/dL of blood which insulin decreases
homeostatic ranges exists for many variables
pathophysiology inability to maintain a variable within its homeostatic range
homeostasis is...not.. dynamic...static
disturbing a physiological variable means the body will compensate regulatory responses to return it to within the acceptable range
dynamic constancy constantly changing
short term... variation w/ long term stability
example of maintaining homeostasis: blood glucose levels rise...and it requires interaction among several systems above normal levels after a meal...below normal levels after fasting...nervous, endocrine, cardio, digestive
homeostatic controls are involuntary
set point steady state which requires energy added constantly
maintenance of a set point for temp balance heat loss with heat gain
negative feedback systems turn on then off
- feedback can occur at the level of the molecule, cell (control building and destroying) and the organ
cortisole production as example for - feedback: cortisol is a...and it does... hormone that helps other hormones...necessary but potentially harmful at high levels...negative feedback inhibition
what would happen to the body if temp was not controlled by neg feedback? overheating
positive feedbac systems are... turned on then reinforced to completion
examples of + feedback systems neuron action potentials, uterine contractions, blood clot formation
resetting set points: set points are maintained..and reset.. for a reason (to maintain homeostasis)
fevers are an example of resetting the set point body increases temperature to kill the pathogen
blood iron levels are an example of resetting the set point body resets blood iron levels to prevent bacteria from replicating
feedforward regulation is considered preparatory regulation
examples of feedforward athletes heart rate and breathing rate, smell of food stimulating stomach acid production
reflexes are a means of regulating homeostasis
reflexes are specific, involuntary and unlearned
reflex arc components afferent pathway, integration, efferent pathway
afferent pathway is where recieved by the... stimulus...receptor (chemical, baro, stretch, light, etc)
an internal stimulus would be blood glucose, temperature
the integration center is the neural or endocrine systems
efferent pathway is where sent to the... response...effector
local homeostatic responses consist of local control within a tissue
local detection, integration and action steps stimulus at the receptor, integration in the immediate vicinty, not neural or endocrine, effecter produces the response
example of local homeostatic control: increased oxygen demand in cells ->...-> nitric oxide released...local blood vessel dialation
intercellular chemical messengers hormones and paracrine agents
hormones are secreted into the..or the... blood (endocrine glands)...synapse
hormones have to have receptors or target cells
endocrine glands -> target cells through the blood
neurotransmitters go from neuron terminal to the next cell
what chemical messengers are secreted into the synapse? neuron->neuron, neuron -> muscle cells, neuron->gland cells
paracrine agents impact adjacent cells
paracrine agents are secreted into interstitial fluid
autocrine is also secreted into...but these bind to... extracellular fluid...the cell that secreted it. The binding triggers activity
processes related to homeostasis include adaptations, biological rhythms, chemical homeostasis
adaptations are...ability to... inherited or genetic...survive in specific conditions
homeostatic controls are biological adaptations
acclimatization is the ability to...and... adjust...improve homeostatic control for specific conditions
example of acclimatization would be beginning to.. sweat earlier and adjust sweat composition when experience repeated heat or exercise periods
biological rhythms are also called circadian rhythms (regular daily cycle)
circadian rhythms last 24 hours
circadian rhythms...on its own w/o...which means it is... automatically resets...external cues ... free running
free running circadian rhythms depend on the...,...,... hypothalamus (suprachiasmatic nucleus) as pacemaker...pineal gland...melatonin
circadian rhythms are internally...but can be..which is defined as... driven...influenced by external cues...entrainment
natural sleep-wake cycle free running is 25 hours
society sets sleep-wake cycle to...because of... 24 hours...entrainment JET LAG
chemical homeostasis is the movement of materials into, within and out of body
toxins are stored in adipose tissue
negative balance out > in (sweating, calcium)
positive balance in > out (sodium, some vitamins that are fat soluble)
stable balance in = out
Created by: handrzej



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