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Physio Ch. 4

diffusion movement of substances from high to low concentration
diffusion occurs in all states of matter
molecular movement is random and always moving even once equilibrium is met
net movement is directional
flux rate of movement: amt/unittime
net flux compares the movenemtn between two compartments
diffusion equilibrium; net flux=...and...stilloccurs 0...movement
factors affecting flux; temperature increase temp, increase flux
increase molecular mass decrease diffusion
increase surface area for diffusion increase flux
increase difference in concentration between two areas increase flux
density of medium less dense = more flux
chemical composition someimtes there is an electtrical attraction/repulsion between medium and molecules
ficks law j is proportional to gradientXareaXtemp/(distXmw)
time to diffuse increases proportionally to the square of the distance
humans can't rely we have specialized systems for...such as... simple diffusion...access and long distance transport...cardiovascular system
diffusion through a membrane can be either permeable or selectively permeable
permeable means the solute can freely pass through the membrane
selectively permeable means that certain solutes can enter while others can't
what determines permeability of a membrane membrane structure and chemical makeup of solute
phospholipid bilayer is permeable to non-polar
solute size larger size decreases solubility
most soluble small, lipid soluble molecules
least soluble large, lipid insoluble molecules
permeability constant P for a particular molecule, given temp, particular membrane flux J = P*A*(C0-C1)
lipid bilayer; nonpolar molecules have a higher P through a lipid bilayr than polar because its phospholipid and has a hydrophobic interior
4 molecules that pass through the membrane easily o2, co2, fatty acids and steriods
protein channels; ions have a higher than expected P through cell membranes
P for a particular ion...based on... varies among cells...composition of protein channels and ion selectivity
membrane potential is the difference in charge between inside and outside of cell
inside has high K+ and proteins (neg)
outside has high Na+
the inside is... neg relative to the outside
how does this affect movement of ions Na+ wants to go in based on its chemical and electrical concentrations
electrochemical gradient is the balance between concentration gradient and electrical gradient
regulation of channels (4 types) ligand, voltage, mechanically, temp
ligand gated changes shape to open/close when bonded
voltage gated action potentials
mechanicallly gated pressure and vibration
hormones belong to which gate ligand
mediated transport requires transporters via integral proteins
in mediated transport, channels become transporters (stairs to elevator)
the binding site in mediated transport depends on the chemical specificity, conformation change and limited rate of transport
limited rate of transport depends on solute concentration and affinity, # of transporters, rate of conformational change
facilitated diffusion: flux follows electrochemical gradient
facilitated diffusion requires a...does not use...and its movement is toward... protein transporter...atp...equilibrium
active transport: flux is....transporters become...something is needed and it allows.... against chemical gradient...pumps...atp...stockpiling
active transport: primary uses the na/k atpase pump
steps in na/k atpase pump na binds, phosphorylates itself, conformational change, k binds, dephosphorylates, conformational change
purpose of the na/k atpase pump is to maintain electrochemical gradient
ca atpase pump is used for muscle relaxation
ca atpase pump is in the cell membrane and ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum
h atpase pump the... ATB...mitochondria
h/k atpase pump gets...into acid into stomach and kidneys...manipulating hydrogen and K concentrations
secondary active transport does not require ATP, but requires primary to occur first
secondary transport maintains the...and has... electrochemical gradient...binding sites (ion and solute to transport)
in secondary transport Na follows its gradient
the solute in secondary transport is transported against gradient (uses the movement of Na)
cotransport (2nd transport) goes in the same direction
na+/glucosen (cotransport) glucose from gut to cell or glucose from glomerular filtrate to cell
countertransport (2nd transprt) opposite direction
countertransport: na/ca na follows gradient, ca goes against, ca from inside to outside of cell
direction of movement through ion channels (na, k, cl, ca) na=in, k=out, cl=in, ca=in
direction of movement of ions in primary active transport (na, k, h, ca) na=out, k=in, h=out, ca=out
direction of movement of ions in secondary active transport (na, ca) na=in, ca=out
osmosis net diffusion of a solvent (water) across a selectively permeable membrane
osmosis is considered a special case of diffusion
osmosis uses...which are... aquaporins...protein channels
which system has a lot of aquaporins? renal
osmolarity is the number of particles in solution
solute concentration of a solution increase solute decreases concentration of solvent
osmole is = to 1 mole of solute particles per liter of solvent
1 l pure water =... and...osm which means... 55.5 moles solute in 1 liter of solvent
1mol/L solution of glucose and water = ...mole of glucose +...moles of water 1...54.5
1mol/L solution of glucose and water=...osm which means...mole of solute in 1 liter of solution 1....1
1 mol/L of solution NaCl and water= how many osmoles? how many moles? 2 osmoles(na and cl) and 53.5 moles of water...2 moles of solute
2 mol/L solution of 1M glucose, 1 M NaCl and water= how many osm? 3 (na, cl, glucose + 52.5 moles of water)
consequences of osmolarity: if a cell has a permeable membrane... equilibrium and equal volumes
consequences of osmolarity: if a cell has a semipermeable membrane... equilibrium but unequal volumes (doesn't allow solute to go through)
penetrating solutes cross the cell membrane...urea
nonpenetrating solutes cross the cell membrane...large polar molecules or molecules without a protein transporter
nonpenetrating solutes can... cross the cell membrane through leak channels but are actively transported in the opposite direction by pumps
consequences of osmolarity for cells: tonicity counts only nonpenetrating solutes
hypertonic solution osmolarity of solution of nonpenetrating solutes > osmolarity of cell
osmolarity of cell = 300 mOsm
hypertonic solutions makes water move out of cell (crenation)
isotonic solution means that the osmolarity of the solution.. equals the osmolarity of the cell
isotonic solution results in nothing
hypotonic solution means the osmolarity of the solution is < osmolarity of thecell
hypotonic solutions make water go into the cell and it swells
consequences of TOTAL osmolarity for cells (penetrating and non) hyperosmotic, isoosmotic, hypoosmotic
hyperosmotic solution means the osmolarity of the solution of penetrating and nonpenetrating is > osmolarity of cell
hyperosmotic solutions can also be hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic
isoosmotic solutions have an osmolarity of penetrating and non that equals osmolarity of cell
isoosmotic cells can be isotonic or hypotonic
hypoosmotic solutions have an osmolarity of penetrating and non that is < osmolarity of cell
hypoosmotic solutions can only also be hypotonic
endo and exocytosis is when things are packaged to be brought in or taken out of a cell
endocytosis consists of pinocytosis and phagocytosis
pinocytosis consists of fluid endocytosis and receptor mediated endocytosis
receptor mediated endocytosis brings in molecules that are bound to receptors and some fluid
phagocytosis large particles, little fluid (macrophages)
exocytosis is...through. cell secretion...lysosomes and golgi secretory vesicles
exocytosis leads to cell membrane growth
epithelial transport: epithelial cells are on the apical membrane, luminal or mucosal membrane
epithelial cells are also on the basolateral or serosal membrane
epithelial transport and Na apical channel -> basolateral active transport (primary)
solute x in epithelial transport apical transporter -> basolateral transporter
solute x: other associated transport secondary active trasnport
transport of material through epithelium occurs through two pathways paracellular and transcellular
paracellular is between cells
transcellular is through cells
transcellular pathways are from one cavity... through a cell into another cavity
examples of transcellular pathways: glucose:... gut to columnar epithelium to interstitium to capillary
another example: glucose to glomerular filtrate to columnar epithelium to interstitium to capillary
another example: water will follow overall solute movement
Created by: handrzej



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