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Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) Part of the CPU where all calculations and comparisons take place.
Bit In binary, a bit represents a zero or one.
Byte Another word for character; generally represented by 8 bits.
Cache memory High-speed random access memory that is used to increase the speed of the data-processing cycle.
Central processing unit (CPU) Also known as the microprocessor; the brains of the computer.
Computer system Input, output, and processing devices grouped together.
Control unit That part of the CPU that coordinates all CPU activities.
Controller Device that controls the transfer of data from the computer to a peripheral device and vice versa.
Execution cycle (E-cycle) Amount of time it takes the central processing unit to execute an instruction and store the results in RAM.
Expansion slot Openings on the motherboard where an expansion board, also called an adapter card, can be inserted.
FireWire Type of external bus that supports data transfer rates up to 400 Mbps and can connect up to 63 external devices
Instruction cycle (I-cycle) Amount of time it takes the central processing unit to retrieve an instruction and complete the command.
Machine cycle Made up of the instruction cycle and the execution cycle
Memory Also called random access memory or RAM, it is like short-term memory. It stores data while the computer is running. When the computer is turned off or if there is a loss of power, any data in the main memory disappears.
Modem Communications hardware device that facilitates the transmission of data.
Motherboard Circuit board that contains all of the computer system’s main components.
Port Point at which a peripheral device attaches to a system unit so it can send data or receive information from the computer.
Random access memory (RAM) Where instructions and data are stored on a temporary basis; volatile memory.
Read-only memory (ROM) Permanent storage; instructions are burned onto chips by the manufacturer.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) Standard that supports data transfer rates up to 12 million bits per second.
Created by: matuskyc