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Intro_CH.2 Key Terms

Intro to OT (4th ed.) - O'Brien & Hussey - CH.2_terms

What is moral treatment? A movement grounded in the philosophy that all people, even the most challenged, are entitled to consideration and human compassion. Movement conceived by Philippe Pinel & William Tuke.
Who was Philippe Pinel? French physician who advocated humane treatment for mentally ill patients in the late 1700s. Introduced "work treatment" for the "insane" - i.e., exercise, work, music, literature, & farming.
Who was William Tuke? An English Quaker who opened the York Retreat, which pioneered new methods of treatment of mentally ill patients.
Who was Benjamin Rush? An American Quaker who was the 1st physician to institute Moral Treatment practices.
What was the Arts & Crafts Movement? Late 19th century movement born in reaction to the Industrial Revolution; emphasized craftsmanship & design. The movement was led by John Ruskin & William Morris.
Who was Dr. William Rush Dunton, Jr.? Considered the father of OT; coined the phrase occupation therapy; introduced a regimen of crafts for his patients. Wrote Occupational Therapy: A Manual for Nurses.
Who was George Edward Barton? An architect who opened Consolation House for convalescent patients, where occupation was used as a method of treatment. Recommended the term occupational therapy.
Who was Herbert Hall? A physician who adapted the Arts & Crafts Movement for medical purposes. Main focus was Neurasthenia, and used the "work cure" approach.
Who was Eleanor Clarke Slagle? Known as the mother of OT; developed the area of habit training & organized the 1st professional school for OT practitioners.
Who was Susan Tracy? A nurse involved in the Arts & Crafts Movement & in the training of nurses in the use of occupations; she believed only nurses were qualified to practice occupations.
Who was Susan Cox Johnson? She sought to demonstrate that occupation could be morally uplifting, that it could improve the mental & physical state of patients & inmates in public hospitals & almshouses, and that these individuals could contribute to their self-support.
Who was Thomas Kidner? He was a Canadian architect who was influential in establishing a presence for OT in vocational rehabilitation & TB treatment.
What's the National Society for the Promotion of OT? Formed on March 15, 1917; marked the birth of the profession of OT. Barton, Dunton, Slagle, Johnson, Kidner, & Newton created the organization.
Who was Adolf Meyer? A Swiss physician committed to a holistic perspective; developed the psychobiological approach to mental illness. Believed in purposeful activity to promote health.
Holistic An approach that deems that each individual should be seen as a complete & unified whole rather than a series of parts or problems to be managed.
World War I influenced OT how? Reconstruction aides & programs were created during the war & helped to influence the OT profession.
Reconstruction aides Civilians who helped rehabilitate soldiers who had been injured in the war so that they could either return to active military duty or be employed in a civilian job. Reconstruction program began on a trial basis at Walter Reed in 1918.
What was the Soldier's Rehabilitation Act (Smith-Sears Veterans Rehab Act of 1918)? Act that established a program of vocational rehabilitation for soldiers disabled on active duty (act established after WWI). OT's focused on helping soldiers to return to productive living.
What was the Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Act (Smith-Fess Act of 1920)? Act provided fed. funds to states on a 50/50 matching basis to provide vocational rehab services to civilians w/physical disabilities; applicants had to be unable, bc of their disability, to engage successfully in gainful employment.
What is AOTA? American Occupational Therapy Association formerly known as the National Society for the Promotion of OT - name changed in 1921.
Reductionistic An approach to understanding where the problem is broken into parts, & the parts are viewed & managed separately. Reductionistic views threatened the occupation & holistic perspective.
Deinstitutionalization Transfer of a community setting of patients who have been hospitalized for an extended period of time, usually years. The Disinstitutionalization Plan came about after the discovery of neuroleptic drugs (tranquilizers & antipsychotics) in the 1950s.
What was the Rehabilitation Movement? The period from 1942-1960 in which VA hospitals increased in size & # to handle the casualties of war & continued care of veterans.
What is Medicare? Enacted in 1965; legislation that provides health care assistance for individuals 65+ or those who are permanently & totally disabled. In 1988, legislation allowed OT's the right to Medicare provider #s permitting reimbursement for OT services.
What's the Rehabilitation Act of 1973? Act that guaranteed certain rights for people w/disabilities, emphasized the need for rehab research, & called for priority service for persons w/ the most severe disabilities (see page 20-21).
What's the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975? This act established the right of all kids to a free & appropriate education, regardless of handicapping condition (includes OT as a related service). Law requires a written IEP for each student.
What's the Handicapped Infants & Toddlers Act of 1986? Amendment to the EAHCA of 1975; includes kids 3-5 yrs old & initiates new early intervention programs for kids from birth to 3 yrs of age.
What's the Technology Related Assistance for Individuals w/ Disabilities Act of 1988? Addressed the availability of assistive technology devices & services to individuals w/ disabilities.
What is the Prospective Payment System (PPS)? Prospective or predetermined rate of payment that the government would make for each inpatient stay by a Medicare beneficiary. The level of payment is set by descriptive categories according to DX, called diagnosis-related groupings, or DRGs.
Who was Dr. Gary Keilhofner? He developed the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) which is the most evidenced based model of practice in OT.
What is the Americans w/ Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)? Legislation that provides civil rights to all individuals w/ disabilities. Ex. Equal access & opportunity in employment, transportation, public accommodations, state & local gov't, & telecommunications for disabled persons.
What is the Individuals w/ Disabilities Education Act of 1991 (IDEA)? Legislation that requires school districts to educate students w/ disabilities in the least restrictive environment (LRE). IDEA used to be the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. IDEA was amended in 1997 to become IDEA 97.
What's the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA)? Legislation intended to reduce Medicare spending, create incentives for development of managed care plans, encourage enrollment in managed care plans, & limit fee-for-service payment & programs.
Created by: sheaton
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