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Mech/Disease Lec1 SM

OTH2410 Conditions Fall 2012 SM

What is an antigenic substance capable of producing an allergic responce in the body? Allergen
What is a severe systemic allergic responce characterized by redness, itching, swelling, & water buildup (angioedema): in severe cases, life-threatening respiratory distress & rapid BP drop (anaphylactic shock) Anaphylaxis
Antigen Any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies
Asymptomatic Without symptoms
Carcinogenic A substance that produces cancer or that causes transformation of a normal cell to a cancerous one.
Chromosome Structures in the nucleus of a cell that function in the transmission of genetic information.
Genotype The genetic code & chromosomes contained in every cell exactly in an individual's body
Homeostasis A state of equilibrium in the body.
Ischemia Holding back or obstructing the flow of blood.
Metastasis Spreading of a malignant disease or pathogenic microorganisms from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it.
Mutation A variation or change in genetic structure.
Pathogensis The development of disease; pathologic mechanisms.
What is Pathology Scientific study of disease.
How do you measure homeostasis? 5 vital signs: BP, Pulse, Temp, Resp Rate, Pain
What are signs? Objective things you can measure such as vitals.
What are symptoms? Subjective things the patient tells you such as aches/pains.
Acute is considered what versus Chronic? Acute is less than 6 mo. whereas Chronic is over 6 mo.
What are predisposing factors of disease? Age, Gender, Lifestyle, Enviroment, Heredity, ethnicity
What risk factors can be changed? Lifestyle & Environment
What are the signs of Inflammation? Redness, swelling, heat, pain, & loss of function.
What are the signs of Local Infection? Redness, swelling, heat pain, pus, enlarged lymph nodes, red streaks, fever.
What are the signs of Systemic Infection? Fever, headache, body aches, weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, delirium (goes into blood or lymph)
What 3 tests measure inflammation? WBC, ESR, & CRP
What is used to treat Bacterial Infections? Antibiotics
What is used to treat infections from Protozoa? Antimicrobials
What is used to treat infections from Fungi: Antifungals
What is used to treat virul infections? No meds typically must run course.
What is direct contact? When pathogen is transmitted directly to you from the source (via body fluids/contact,etc.)
What is indirect contact? Transmission of a pathogen via food, fomite, vector.
What is the body's natural defenses against infection? mechanical barriers (skin/mucus), chemical barriers (Antibodies), Inflammatory response (swelling) & immune response (T1's)
How do you prevent transmission of diseases? 1. Education/immunization 2. Isolation/quarantine 3. kill pathogen 4. sterilization/HAND WASHING
What is a mutation? An abnormality in a single gene
What is Polygenic? Abnormality in several genes.
What are the 4 reasons for genetic disorders? 1. Mutation 2. Polygensis 3. abnormal absence/presence of entire chromosome 4. alteration in structure of chromosome
Autosomal Dominant Not on x/y--is expressed if just one gene has it (one parent)
Autosomal Recessive Expressed only if both genes of that chromosome have it (both parents)--one parent can be carrier
X-Linked Recessive Genetic disorder on sex chromosome. Males more vulnerable (as females have 2 x's)
What does genetic counseling do? looks at components of disorder-statistics, test results, & assists family with coping.
Neoplasm Abnormal formation of new tissue (Tumor-benign or malignant)
What 3 areas are used to assess cancer stages? 1. Size/extent of primary tumor 2. extent of lymph node involvement 3. number of metastases
What are 3 Immune disorders? 1. Allergies 2. Antigens 3. HIV
What is the most common cause of death in children & young adults? Physical Trauma
What are considered Chemical Agents? pollutants, poisons, drugs, preservatives, cosmetics, dyes
What are considered other agents/irritants? Extreme heat/cold, radiation, electrical shock, insect or snake bites
What are 2 reasons for malnutrition? 1. Internal Disorder (Crohn's, etc.) 2. Deficient Diet (ltd. food supply or extreme dieting)
List 7 Common concerns of ederly patients: 1. Substance Abuse 2. Medications 3. loss of mental acuity 4. depression 5. Nutrition 6. Falls 7. Significant Life stressors
At what age do specific screenings start due to health decline in aging? 40-50
True/False: Chronic disease affects self esteem/behavior True
True/False: Disease may lead to altered body image or emotional/social changes True
What are the goals of DX & TX a disease? Which of these are teh OT responsible for? 1. cure 2. Control Symptoms 3. Be Supportive (combination of all) OT is not liable for cure.
What are ways in which we can treat disease? 1.preventative 2. therapeutic 3. medications 4. surgery 5. PT, OT, ST, 6. Diet, 7. Psych 8. Pat. Ed
Holistic treatment focuses on what? The needs of the whole person: Spiritual, Cognitive, emotional, physical, Social.
What is the current trend in treating disease? Involve the patient in choices of Tx & encourage active participation
What approach is used for complicated cases? The team approach--PT,OT,ST,etc
What new therapies are also being utilized? Gene Therapy & Stem Cell Research
What 3 proactive strategies are used for preventing disease & injury? 1.Identify risk factors & use injury 2.Use prophylactic medical interventions 3. Public Education
What is used in H/C Institutions & employers? 1.Preventive measures against nosocomial infections & screenings for teenage alchohol abuse 2. Employee wellness programs 3. equip safety measures 4. Improved labeling/packaging 5. early intervention for family violence 6. Vaccines
What are some common methods of non-tradional medicine? Massage, Aromotherapy, Diet/nutrition, Chiro, Hypnosis, Prayer, Acupuncture/pressure, Reiki, Aromatherapy, Ostepathy, Reflex, Herbs, Music, Magnets, Shiatsu
What is important when teaching your patient? 1. Patient Centered (involved) 2. directed, interactive plan of care 3. variety of methods
What is our goal in OT? To help them with function, educate them about the disease & how it affects function & possibly help with pre/post op education.
Created by: RadGirl13