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pan consists of personal devices at close range such as a cell phone
lan covers a small area such as a home or office
wlan covers a limited geographical area and is popular in places where networking cableare difficult to install such as outdoors
man covers a large campus or city
wan covers a large geographical area and is made up of many smaller networks
bandwidth the theoretical number of bits that can be transmitted over a network at one time,similiar to the number of lanes on a highway
internet service providers earthlink comcast
ieee creates standards for computer and electronic industries
tcp/ip a group of protocols that control many different aspects of communication
isdn an outdated broadband technology developed in the 1980s that uses regular phone lines and is accessed by a dialup connection
computer when two or more computers communiate with each other
data throughput actual speed of a network
latency delay in network transmissions
broadband networking technology that carries more then one signal such as dsl or telephone
packet data segment
header info at the beginning of the packet
trailer info at the end of the packet
cable modem converts pc digital signal to analog when sending them and converts incoming analog data to digital
dsl group of broadband technologies that covers a wide range of speeds
dsl uses ordinary copper phone lines and a range of frequencies on that copper wire that re not used by voice
adsl uses one upload speed from the consumer to an isp and a faster download speed
sdsl uses equal bandwiths in both directions
disadvantage of using satellite for an internet connection delays in transmission
wireless networks uses radio waves or infrared light instead of cables or wires to connect computers or ther devices
802.11 most popular technology for for wireless local networks
802.11g freguency range 2.4 ghz distance 100 meters
802.11b freguency range 2.4 ghz distance 100 meters
mimo two or more atennas are used at both ends of transmission
802.11n compatible with 802.11b/g
802.11n can use the 5ghz range
802.11a works in the 5ghz range 50 meters
802.11k help manage connections between wireless devices and access points
802.11k defines how wireless network traffic can better be distributed over multiple access points covering a wide area so that the strongest signal is not overloaded
802.11r defines how a mobile wireless device can easily and quickly transition as it moves out of range from one access point snd into the range of another
802.11d designed to run in countries outside the united states
three main protocols for encryption for 802.11 networks wep wpa wpa2
ssid name of the wireless access point
mac address six byte number that uniquely identifies a network adapter on a computer
802.16d wimax
802.16e supports up to 75 Mbps range of several miles uses 2 to 11 ghz frequency
base station fixed transceiver and antenna
wpa2 802.11i standard
aes advanced encryption standard
tkip encryption temporal key integrity protocol
bluetooth range of 10 meters 2.4 ghz range transfer data up to 3 mbps
gsm uses att open standard that uses digital communication of data and accepted worldwide
cdma used by cell phone providers in the us only
tdma older outdated technology
full duplex simultaneous send and receive at the same time
half duplex only send or receive
point to point send data packets over phone lines line protocol
dial up networking plain old telephone service
modem standard v92
cellular internet card air card
air card works like a cell phone to connect to a cellular wan to give you computer access
mobile satellite broadband requires portable satellie dish
100BaseT an ethernet standard that operates at 100 Mbps and uses twisted pair cabling up to 100 meters-328 feet also called fast ethernet
10Base2 an outdated ethernet standard that operates at 10mbps and uses small coaxial cable up to 500 meters long.also called thinnet
10Base5 an outdated ethnernet standard that operates at 10Mbps and uses thick coaxial cable up to 500 meters long also called thicknet
10BaseT an ethernet standard that operates at 10mbps and uses twisted pair cables up to 100 meters or 328 feet
coaxial cable single copper wire down the middle and a braided shield around it
fiber optic transmits signals as pulses of light over glass strands inside protected tubing
fiber optic cable single mode and multimode
ethernet cabling unshielded and shielded twisted pair
ethernet types 10mbps 100mbps 1000Mbps 10Gbps
fiber optic cables straight tip standard connector local connector mechanical transfer rj
1000Mbps gigabit ethernet
100BaseT 100BaseTX and 100BaseFX
100BaseFX uses fiber optic cable
100Mbps fast Ethernet
twisted pair cable most popular cabling for local networks
fiber optic transmits signals as pulses of light over glass strands inside protective tubing
coaxial single copper wire down the middle and a braided shield around it
10Base2 185meters or 607 feet
10Base5 500 meters or 607 feet
10BaseT 100 meters or 328 feet
hub pass thru device tp connect nodes on a network
bus toplogy nodes are all strung together in a daisy chain with terminators at each end
star topology nodes are connected to a centralized hub or switch
switch keeps a table of all devices connected to it
switch uses a table to decide which path to use when sending packets
hub no egard for data
network cables patch cable or crossover table
patch cable straight thru cable
patch cable connects computer to hub or switch
hub data overload because everyone gets the request or the data
ethernet hub transmits the data packet to every device except the device that sent the transmission
crossover cable used to connect two like devices such as a switch to a switch or a pc to a pc
hub sends data to everyone
switch sends data to specific people
patch cable connect two different devices
crossover cable connect two like devices
ad hoc mode wireless devices commnicate directly pc to pc
router device that manages traffic between two networks
router gateway to the Internet
crossover transmit and receiv lines are reversed
router a device that connects one device to another
dhcp dynamic host configuration protocol
dhcp server gives ip addresses to computers on the network when they attempt to initiate a connection to the network and request an ip address
access points provide coverage
wireless access points allow wireless device connection to a lan
firewall blocks unwanted traffic initiated from the internet
router connection between two networks
nat network address translation
nat protocol that substitutes the ip address of the router for the ip address of other computers inside the network when these computers need to communicate on the internet
dynamic ip addressing an assigned ip address used for the current session only,when the session is terminated , the ip address returns to a list of available addresses
dhcp server provides ip addresses out to network computers
router functions router switch dhcp server wireless access point firewall with or without nat redirection
port 20 ftp
port 22 ssh
port 23 telne
port 25 smtp
port 53 dns
port 80 http
port 110 pop3
port 143 imap
port 443 https
port 3389 rdp
client server applications two computers and two applications are involved
server any computer or application that brings up data when that data is requested
wireless access point a computer can connect to the network using a wireless device
three levels where communication happens between a client and server application hardware application operating system
protocols predetermines rules for communicqtion
hardware level root level of communication
ip address a thirty two bit string used to identify a computer on the network
the largest possible bit number two hundred and fifty five
two kinds of network addressing static dynamic
static addressing a unique IP address that never changes
dynamic addressing each time the computer connects to the network it gets a new ip address from the dhcp server which is called leasing the address
ip address used to identify a computer both inside and outside its local network
operating system responsible for managing communication between itself and another computer using rules for communication that both operating systems understand
application level when you use the internet to surf the web or download your email you need to use an
client requests information
server has information requested
hardware level includes the mac address
port number uniquely identifies an application on your computer
mac address local address
ip address long distance address
socket endpoint of an inter-process communication flow across a computer network
application level client communicationg with another application
socket ip address followed by a colon and a port number
pop3 post office protocol version 3 used by a client to receive mail
dns domain name service used to find an ip address when a coomputers character based name is unknown
imap stays on the server you can check your email from phone or internet and the email is always there
pop3 deleted off the server as it is being sent to me it is the only copy
telnet has no encryption
https has encryption
ip address 32 bits long made up of 4 bytes each 8 bits long
intranet private network that uses he tcp/ip protocols
octet eight bits
class A 127 possibilities
class B 16,000 possibilities
class C 2 million possibilities
first part of an IP address identifies the network
last part of an IP address identifies the host
IPv4 32 bits
IPv6 128 bits
when data is routed over interconnected networks the network portion of the ip address is used to locate the right network
after the data arrives at the local network the host portion of the ip address is used to identify the one computer on the network that is to receive the data
ICANN responsible for keeping track of assigned ip addresses and domain names
class D multicasting
class d octets 224 thru 239
class e research
class e
subnet mask tells the os which part of an ip address is the network portion and which part is the host
subnet mask a computer or other device can know if an ip address of another computer is on its network or another network
classful subnet masks contain all ones or all zeros
classless subnet mask contains a mix of ones and zeros
public ip addresses ip addresses available on the internet
private ip addresses ip addresses not available on the internet
cidr classless interdomain routing
nat redirection the device substitutes its own public ip address for the private ip address of a computer behind the firewall
apipa automatic private ip adress
dynamic ip address assigned for current connection only
dhcp server manages dynamically assigned ip adresses on a network
dhcp clients workstations that work with dhcp servers
apipa automatic private ip address
apipa an ip address used by a computer when it cannot successfully lease an ip address from a dhcp server
host name computer name
host name name of a computer and can be used in place of its ip address
netbios network basic input output system
netbios name can be up to 15 characters
netbeui windows networking protocol
domain name identifies a network
fully qualified domain name identifies a computer and the network to which it belongs
name resolution the process of associating a character based name with an ip address
apipa address that means there is a network problem somewhere 169.254.x.y.
apipa address can still have a peer to peer network
domain name system domain name service
domain name system the protocol and service used to track these character based names with ip addresses
chracter based names substitute for ip addresses
netbios name a fifteen character name used on legacy system
dns server finds ip address when fdqn known
hosts file contains computer names and their associated ip addresses on the local network
http protocol used for the www and is used by web browsers and servers to communicate
wins windows internet naming service
wins used to track netbios names
https protocol used by web browsers and servers to encrypt the data before it is sent and then decrypt it before the data is processed
ftp transfers files between two computers
api application programming interface
api the way applications ask the operating system to do something
smtp used to send an email to a recipients mail server
smtp auth protocol is used to authenticate a user to an email server when the email client first tries to connect to the email server to send email
pop3 or imap4 used to download email to the client
ping packet internet groper
ping tests connectivity by sending an echo request to a computer
ipconfig can display tcp ip configuration and refresh the ip address
telnet a user connects to a remote computer and controls it through the command prompt window
tcp and udp control communication on the network
imap leaves a copy on the server
pop3 look at it and it is gone
tcp guarantees packet delivery
udp no guarantee of delivery
tcp connection oriented protocol
udp connectionless protocol
tcp makes a connection checks whether the data was received and if not it resends
udp best effort protocol primarily used for broadcasting
udp does not check if the connection checks whether the data was received and if not it resends
arp address resolution protocol
arp locating a host on a local network
rarp discovering internet address on a local network
telnet allows user connection to a remote computer
ping -a tests for name resolution
ping -t pings until it is interrupted
ping loopback address
ping -l changes the size of the data packet sent with the ping
ipconfig /all displays tcp ip information
ipconfig /release release the ip address
ipconfig /renew lease a new address from a dhcp server
ipconfig /displaydns displays info about name resolutions that windows currently hold in the dns resolver cache
vpn secures private data traveling over a public network
vpn tunneling protocols pptp L2tp ssl ipsec
point to point protocol weakest protocol
strongest tunneling protocol layer two tunneling protocol over ipsec
subnet mask group of four dotted decimal numbers that tells tcp ip if a computers ip address is on the same network
gateway device that allows a computer on one network to communicate with another network
default gateway is the gateway a computer uses to access another network if it does not have a better option
Created by: cgeaski