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How many layers of cells in the Tri-lminar Embryo? Three: Ectoderm, Mesoderm, and Endoderm
Where is the Ectoderm located? Outside the embryo
Where is the Notocord located? Inside the Mesoderm
What innervates skeletal muscle? Mesoderm
What innervates the spine and brain? Ectoderm?
What is the Notocord? A primitive version of the spinal cord after the egg is fertilzed after 21 days
How does the notocord develop? Stimulated by Ectoderm to form the Neurotube to develop the spinal cord and brain
What derives from the Neurotube? Notocord
How does a somite form? The Mesoderm forms a somite called a Sclerotome. The somite receives nerve fibers from the neurotube that is stimulated by the Ectoderm in the skeletal muscle.
The vertebral column is innervated by what? Sclerotomes
How does Myotomes and Dermatones develop? Somite is innervated by nerve fibers from the neurotube that is developed after being stimulated by the Ectoderm. The somite is developed to a Sclerotome which is innervated by skeletal muscle. The sclerotome further divides into myotome and dermatone.
What innervates skeletal muscle? Myotome
What innervates skin/ Dermatone
Sensory innervation of the skin is segmented into what? Dermatones
What is a coronal plane? body is divided into anterior and posterior half
What is a sagital plane? Body is divided into left and right halves laterally
What is another name for a transverse plane? Horizontal or Cross-Sectional Plane
What is a transverse plane? Dividing the body into horizontally into upper and lower portions
What is another name for posterior? Dorsal
What is another name for ventral? Anterior
What is correct term for top of the body? Cranial
What is the correct term for the bottom of the body? Caudal
What is the correct term for away from the body? Lateral
What is the correct term for towards the body? Medial
What is the correct term for between lateral and medial Intermediate
What is the correct term for toward the body's surface? Superficial
What is the correct term for away from the body surface? Deep
What term means close to the point of attachment? Proximal
What term means away from the point of attachement? Distal
When a muscle gets shorter its called? Concentric Action
What is Eccentric Action? When a muscle gets longer
What happens when a muscle remains the same length? Isometric Action
What is a stable attachement? Origin
What is a mobile attachement? Insertion
Flexion and extension occur in what plane? Sagital
What occurs in the transverse plane? Rotation
Lateral Flexion, Adduction and Abduction, Lateral External and Medial Internal Rotation, Circumduction occurs where? Coronal plane
What is special about the middle finger? It can abduct but it cannot adduct.
When you put your foot on the gas pedal its called? Plantar Flexion
When you take your foot off the gas pedal its called? Dorsi-flexion
What are the functions of the Vertebral Column? Weight support, Erect posture, Bipedal locomotion, and enclose and protect the spinal cord and nerves
What do you find in the Vertebral Column? Spinal cord
What structures form the Interverebral Foramen? Superior and Inferior Articular Notches
What structure exits the Interverebral Foramen? Spinal nerves
What structures make up the Vertebral Arch? Lamina and pedicle
What causes Spina Bifida? Lamina and spine does not form and the Nucleus Pulposus bulges from the intervertebral disc
Where does Spina Bifida occur? Vertebra L4 or S1
How many vertebrae are there? 33
Name the vertebrae regions and how many regions in each? Cervical-7, Thoraic- 12, Lumber-5, Sacral-5, and Coccygeal-4
What are the characteristics of the cervical vertebrae? Bifid spine, no body, transverse foramen,vertebral arteries travel to the brain via transverse foramen
What are the characteristics of the thoraic vertebrae? Oblique spinous process, transverse coastal facets and articular demi-facets.
What are the characteristics of the lumbar vertebrae? No transverse coastal facets or demi-facets, and are large in size
C1 vertebrae is also known as what? Atlas
What are the characteristics of C1? No body, it has an articulation for the dens, transverse foramen, allows you to nod your head
C2 vertebrae is also known as what? Axis
What are the characteristics of C2? It has a dens, articulates with C1, transverse foramen, bifid spinous process
What is significant about the Sacral Hiatus? It's the floor of vertebral canal and you can perform Epidural Anesthesia
What is the space between Dura Matter and the Vertebral Canal? Epidural Space
What happens to the Anesthesia once its injected? Travels thru the Epidermal Space to the Spinal nerves
Why is a Epidural Anesthesia given in the Sacral Hiatus? Avoid the spinal cord
Where does the spinal cord stop? Vertebrae L2
Where is the Dura Matter, Filum Terminalis, and the Subarachnoid space found? Below Vertebrae L2
How many curvatures does the spine have? Two primary and secondary curvatures
When does the primary curvature develop? What are they? In the fetus, sacral and thoraic
When does the secondary curvature develop? What are they? After a baby is born 3-12 months. Cervical and lumbar.
What is the significance of secondary curvature? Shifts the center of gravity through the center of the body allowing erect posture and bipedal locomotion
What is Kyphosis? What's another name for it? Exaggerated curvature of the thoraic vertebrae. Hunchback
Congenital, Occupational Osteoporosis, TB, Fractures and Degenerating Discs are causes of what? Kyphosis
What is Lordosis? Exaggerated curvature of the lumbar region
What causes Lordosis? Pregnancy and Obesity
What is Scoliosis? Lateral curvature of the spine
What causes Scoliosis? Hemi-vertebra, short leg, polio, stroke, herniated disc, and Idiopathic
What structures are visible after laminectomy is done dorsally? Posterior Longitudinal Ligament, Intervertebral Disc, Pedicle
What is the purpose of the Anterior and Posterior Longitudinal Ligament? Helps and hold the verterbrae in place to prevent dislocation
Anterior and Posterior Longitudinal Ligaments run the full length of the spine. True or False True
What happens when you experience whiplash? the neck is hyperextended and a fracture of the cervical vertebrae occurs along with tearing of the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
Where do you find Ligamentum Flavum? Inside the vertebral canal, runs from lamina to lamina of adjacent vertebrae.
What's included in the Ligamentum Nuchae? Interspinous Ligament and Supraspinous Ligament
What region of the vertebrae do you find Ligamentum Nuchae?? Cervical vertebrae
What is significant about Ligamentum Nuchae? Many muscles take its origin located in the neck and that's why it's so thick
What are the two joints associated with the spine? Zygophyseal (synovial) joint and Interverbral disc (symphysis)
What is the characteristic with two joints? Bathed in synovial fluid
Flexion, Extension, Lateral bending, and rotation are limited in the vertebrae due to what? Zygophyseal joint and Intervertebral disc
Greatest mobility occurs where? where secondary curvatures become primary
The intervertebral discs consists of Nucleus pulposus (outer ring) and Annulus Fibrosus (inner ring)
The Nucleus Pulposus is derived from what? Notocord
What does stenosis of Intervertebral Formen? Shrinkage due to loss of water and reduction of size of the the nucleus pulposus will put pressure of the spinal nerves and cause pain
How does a Herinated Disc occur? The Nucleus Pulposus herinates dorsolaterally through the Annulus Fibrosus. The tissue edemal following injury can cause nerve damage and cause pain.
Herinated discs occur where in the verterbral column? Cervical and lumbar regions
What is another name for Vertebrae C7? Vertebra Prominens
What are the characteristics of Vertebra Prominens? Transverse Process and Formen, no bifid spinious process
Where do you perform a spinal tap? And why? Vertebrae L4, L5, avoid spinal tap.
What is located at S4? Sacral Hiatus and the Natal Cleft (where the two gluteal cheeks meet)
WHat is located at vertebrae L4-L5? Summit of Illiac crest
What is located at vertebrae S2 Posterior Superior Illiac spine
The Brain and Spinal Cord are part of what? Central Nervous System
How many cranial nerves are in the Perephial Nervous System? Twelve
Cranial and Spinal Nerves are part of what? Perephial Nervous System
Name the 5 types of vertebrae Cervical, Theoraic, Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccyx
Why are there 8 cervical spinal nerves but only 7 vertebrae? The first spinal nerve comes off the skull and the first vertebrae C1.
Name the Parts of a Neuron Dendrites, the branches of the neuron (receptive sites), the Soma located in the middle and is the intergrator and receives input from the Dendrites, and the Axon (output) nerve fiber, Axon Hillock, same as Axon.
Name Parts of a Neuron Synapse located at the end of the axon, is the communication transports between a neuron and other cells.
Name the parts of a Synapse Synaptic vesicles, Presynaptic membranes, postsynaptic membrance and action potential
what are synaptic vesicles? Synaptic vesicles are small balloons filled with neurotransmitters that can cause changes to the neuron when released
What are Presynaptic Membrane? small balloon filled vesicles filled with neurotransmitters that travel to the body of the neuron before being released when Action Potential is generated.
What is the Postynaptic Membrane? Neurotransmitter that is released into another muscle, gland, skin or neuron
What is Action Potential? When the charge at the Axon Hillock reaches threshold. Action Potential only goes away from the soma
What are Schwann cells and where are they located? Schwann cells form a myelin sheath around axons and are found in the PNS and the brachial plexius.
What are Oligodendricytes and where are they located? Oligodendricytes are located in the CNS and are myelin sheaths formed around axons.
What are the purposes of the Oligodendricytes and the Schwann cells? Insulate axons, Increase conduction velocity, impulse propagation is more energy efficent.
What are the characteristics of Schwann Cells? they form one mylein sheath around one axon and the demyleinated of Schwann cells can caue Gullian-Barre Disease.
What are the characteristics of Oligodenendrocytes? One Oligodendrocytes can form a mylein sheath to several axons, the demylenation of these cells can cause Multiple Scherosis.
Where do you find a Multipolar Neuron? Name the characteristics. CNS. Multiple dendrites, one axon, one motor neuron, innervates skeletal muscle.
Where do you find Bipolar: Special Sensory Neurons? What are the characteristics? PNS. Dendrites at the opposite ends of two poles, neuron in the middle.
Where do you find Pseudo-Unipolar:General Sensory Neuron. Name the characteristics? In the PNS and dorsal root ganglion. Seperate dendrite and axon that join together, sensory neurons of spinal nerves.
What are the three connective tissue sheaths that cover the nerves in the PNS? Epineurium: Surrounds the entire nerve, Perineurium: surrounds bundle of fibers. Endoneurium: surrounds each axon or fiber.
What is special about the PNS but not the CNS? Schwann cells and connective tissue sheaths are important for the regeneration of damaged axons in the PNS. They guide the the growth cones from the axomal stump back to the target tissue. There are no connective tissue sheaths surrounding axons in CNS.
WHat is special about the PNS but not the CNS? Therefore, Axons in the CNS do not regenerate and it if the axon stump or connective tissue is cut there is a loss of function.
Name the parts of the Spinal Cord and their characteristics. White matter includes axons and myelin (fresh lipids and has a white appearence. Gray matter includes neurons. Central Canal contains cerebral spinal fluid.
Name the parts of the Spinal Cord and their characteristics. Ventral horn (Motor) and includes Multipolar Neurons. Dorsal Horn (Sensory)
In an adult, the spinal cord ends where? L2
What else is growing beyond the vertebrae L2? Spinal nerves grow until S2 and the Dorsal Roots exit out the Posteior Sacral Foramen and Vental Roots exit out the Anterior Sacral Foramen.



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