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Physiology Ch.6-A

QuestionAnswer
AFFERENT NEURON neuron that carries information from sensory receptors at it's peripheral endings to the CNS; cell bodies lie outside the CNS
ANTEROGRADE movement of a substance or action potential in the forward direction from a neuron's dendrites and/or cell body toward the axon terminal
APOPTOSIS programmed cell death that typically occurs during differentiation and development
ASTROCYTE a form of glial cell that regulates composition of extracellular fluid around neurons and forms part of the blood-brain barrier
AXON extension from neuron cell body; propagates action potentials away from cell body; also called a nerve fiber
AXON HILLOCK part of the axon nearest the cell body where the action potential begins
AXON TERMINAL end of axon; forms synaptic or neuroeffector junction with post junctional cell
AXONAL TRANSPORT process involving intracellular filaments by which materials are moved from one end of the axon to the other
BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER group of anatomical barriers and transport systems in brain capillary endothelium that controls the kinds of substances entering the brain extracellular space from the blood and their rates of entry
CELL BODY in cells with long extensions, the part that contains the nucleus
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSYEM (CNS) brain & spinal cord
COLLATERAL branch of a neuron axon
DENDRITE highly branched extension of neuron cell body; receives synaptic input from other neurons
DENDRITIC SPINES a small protrusion from a dendrite that receives a synapse from an axon
DYNEIN motor protein that uses the energy from ATP to transport attached cellular cargo molecules along microtubules.
EFFERENT NEURON neuron that carries information away from the CNS to effector cells
EPENDYMAL CELL type of glial cell that lines internal cavities of the brain & produces CSF
GLIAL CELL nonneuronal cell in CNS; helps regulate extracellular environment of CNS; also called neuroglia
GROWTH CONE tip of a developing axon
INITIAL SEGMENT first portion of axon, plus the part of the cell body where the axon arises
INTEGRATOR brain region that compares the actual value of a variable, such as body temperature, to a set point.
INTERNEURON neuron whose cell body and axon lie entirely in the CNS & forms circuits with other interneurons or connects afferent and efferent neurons
KINESIN motor protein that uses the energy from ATP to transport attached cellular cargo along microtubules
MICROGLIA a type of glial cell that acts as a macrophage
MYELIN insulating material covering axons of many neurons; consists of layers of myelin-forming cell plasma membrane wrapped around the axon
NERVE a group of many nerve fibers traveling together in the peripheral nervous system (they can be afferent nerves carrying thousands of nerve fibers to the CNS, or can be efferent nerves carrying thousands of bundled efferent fibers from the CNS to the PNS)
NERVE FIBER axon of a neuron
NEURON cell in nervous system specialized to initiate, integrate, & conduct electrical signals
NEUROTRANSMITTER chemical messenger used by neurons to communicate with each other, or with effectors
NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR protein that stimulates growth & differentiation of some neurons
NODE OF RANVIER space between adjacent myelin-forming cells along myelinated axon where the axonal plasma membrane is exposed to extracellular fluid; also called neurofibril node
OLIGODENDROCYTE type of glial cell; responsible for myelin formation in the CNS
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) nerve fibers extending from the CNS
PLASTICITY the ability of neural tissue to change its responsiveness to stimulation because of its past history of activation
POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON neuron that conducts information away from a synapse
PRESYNAPTIC NEURON neuron that conducts action potentials toward a synapse
PROCESS long extension from the neuron cell body
RETROGRADE movement of a substance or action potential backward along a neuron, from axon terminals toward the cell body and dendrites
SCHWANN CELL nonneural cell that forms myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system
SENSORY RECEPTOR a cell/portion of a cell that contains structures of chem. mols. sensitive to changes in an energy form in the outside world , or int. envir.; in response to activation by this energy, the sensory receptor initiates act. pots. in that cell/adjacent cell.
SOMA cell body of a neuron
STEM CELL cell that in the adult body, divides continuously and forms a supply of cells for differentiation
SYNAPSE an anatomically specialized junction between two neurons where electrical activity in one neuron influences excitability of a second neuron; see also chemical/electrical/excitatory/inhibitory synapse
VARICOSITY swollen region of axon; contains neurotransmitter-filled vesicles; analogous to presynaptic ending
PARKINSON'S DISEASE a degenerative nervous system disease resulting in progressive loss of movement
2 PARTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CNS - brain & spinal cord PNS - nerves extending from the CNS
BASIC UNIT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM nerve cell, or neuron
WHERE DO THE CELL BODY & DENDRITES RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM? other neurons
WHAT TRANSMITS INFORMATION TO OTHER NEURONS OR EFFECTOR CELLS? the axon (nerve fiber), which may be covered with sections of myelin separated by nodes of Ranvier
3 WAYS TO CLASSIFY NEURONS 1. Afferent neurons 2. Efferent neurons 3. Interneurons
RELEASED BY PRESYNAPTIC NEURONS & COMBINE WITH PROTEIN RECEPTORS ON A POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON; THEY TRANSMIT INFO. ACROSS A SYNAPSE neurotransmitters
FOUND IN THE CNS; HELPS REGULATE ECF COMPOSITION; SUSTAINS NEURONS METABOLICALLY; FORM MYELIN & BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; SERVE AS GIUDES FOR DEVELOPING NEURONS; PROVIDE IMMUNE FUNCTIONS; REGULATES CSF glial cells
WHERE DO NEURONS DEVELOP FROM? stem cells
THIS MARKEDLY DECREASES BETWEEN BIRTH & ADULTHOOD cell division to form new neurons and the plasticity to remodel after injury
TRANSMIT INFO. INTO THE CNS FROM RECEPTORS AT THEIR PERIPHERAL ENDINGS afferent neurons
FUNCTION AS INTEGRATORS & SIGNAL CHANGERS interneurons
TRANSMIT INFO. OUT OF THE CNS TO EFFECTOR CELLS, PARTICULARLY MUSCLES, GLANDS, OR OTHER NEURONS efferent neurons
HAVE NO DENDRITES (DO NOT RECEIVE INPUTS FROM OTHER NEURONS) afferent neurons
ACCOUNT FOR 99% OF ALL NEURONS interneurons
CELL BODY & LONG PERIPHERAL PROCESS OF THE AXON ARE IN THE PNS; ONLY SHORT CENTRAL PROCESS OF THE AXON ENTERS THE CNS afferent neurons
INTEGRATE GROUPS OF AFFERENT & EFFERENT NEURONS INTO REFLEX CIRCUITS interneurons
CELL BODY, DENDRITES, & A SMALL SEGMENT OF THE AXON ARE IN THE CNS; MOST OF THE AXON IS IN THE PNS efferent neurons
LIE ENTIRELY WITHIN THE CNS interneurons
Created by: kmaresco