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Physiology I

Resistance to Infection - Test 2

What is defined as: the ability to resist all types of organisms or toxins that damage the tissues and organs? Immunity
What is innate immunity? The resistance to many diseases of animals
What are the various roles of innate immunity? 1. Phagocytosis 2. Destroys toxins using acid & digestive enzymes 3. Killer Lymphocytes
What is another name for acquired immunity? Adaptive Immunity
What is acquired (adaptive) immunity? The ability to develop immunity
What are the 3 types of Acquired Immunity? 1. Humoral Immunity (B Cell Immunity) 2. Cell Mediated Immunity (T-Cell Immunity) 3. Immunization (Vaccination)
True or False, Antibodies are produced by B lymphocytes? True
Cell mediated immunity utilizes activated lymphocytes, True or False? True, Activated Lymphocytes are T- Lymphocytes
True or False, Activated lymphocytes & antibodies are produced in Lymphoid tissues True
What stimulates acquired immunity? Antigens
What are epitopes? A molecular group on the surface of the large molecules
What are haptens? small MW, combines with antigenic substance to elicit an immune response
What examples of haptens? 1. Drugs 2. Animal Dander 3. Scaling Skin 4. Chemicals 5. Toxin
True or False, Lymphocytes are essential for survival? True
What are Lymphocytes dervied from? Pruripotent Hemopoitic Stem Cells
Name the lymphoid tissues? 1. Spleen 2. Submucosal Areas of the GI Tract 3. Bone Marrow 4. Tonsils 5. Adenoids 6. Thymus
B Lymphocytes migrate to where during mid fetal life? Liver
B Lymphocytes migrate to where after birth? Bone Marrow
B Lymphocytes migrate to where after being processed in the liver and bonemarrow? To the lymph
What are the different types of T-Lymphocytes? T-Helper, T-Supressor, T-Memory, T-Killer, T-Delayed
What do lymphokines do? Stimulates B-Lymphocytes
What secretes Interleukin-1 Macrophages
What effect does Interleukin-1 have on lymphocytes? It promotes growth and reproduction
Memory cells are dormant until activated by what? Antigens
Which is higher during the primary response, IgM or IgG? IgM
Which is higher during the secondary response, IgM or IgG? IgG
The typical structure of an IgG antibody contains a Disulfide Bond, True of False? True
What are the 5 classes of antibodies? 1. IgA 2. IgD 3. IgE 4. IgG 5. IgM
Antibodies compose ____% of the total amount of plasma proteins? 20%
Gamma globulins are also know as? Immunoglobulins
What class of antibodies has the largest Ig? IgM
Which class of antibodies has a circular pentameric arrangement? IgM
What class of antibodies is th 1st to respond to a primary antigen? IgM
What is the most abundant class of antibodies? IgG
What class of antibodies is capable of crossing the placenta? IgG
Where is IgG antibodies found? In the blood and extravascular spaces
What class of antibodies is least abundant? IgD
What class of antibodies has the lowest molecular mass? IgD
What class of antibodies is involved in allergic reactions and parasites? IgE
What the different types of mechanisms involved during a direct attack on an infection? 1. Agglutination 2. Precipitation 3. Neutralization 4. Lysis 5. Opsonization
What mechanism is used to bood type? Agglutination
What is the clumping of cells with surface antigens? Agglutination
What mechanism facilitates ingestion by phagocytosis? Opsonization
How many proteins does the complement system compose of? 20 each having a specific job
Which pathway of the Complement System facilitates ingestion by phagocytosis? C3 Pathway or the Alternate pathway is associated with Opsonazation of bacteria
True or False, the alternate pathway is activated w/out the intermediation of the antigen-antibody reaction? True
What is the role of the compement system? Break Down antibody complexes
What is the most numerous T-Cell? Helper T-Cells
Which T-Cell acts as a major regulator of virtually all immune functions? Helper T-Cells
What are lymphokines formed from? Helper T-Cells
What are lymphokines? Protein mediators that act on bone marrow & other cells of the immune system
What type of lymphokines are responsible for activation of helper T-Cells Interleukin 2 (all the rest stimulate B-Cell Growth)
Which lymphokine is responsible for direct destruction of an invading cell? Interleukin 2
What are perforins? hole forming proteins that punch holes in the membrane of the attacked cell.
What secretes perforins? Cytotoxic T-Cells
Cytotoxic T-Cells will destry: 1. Micororganisms 2. Cancer Cells 3. Heart Transplant Cells 4. Foreign Cells 5 Tissue cells (Self)
What ar the 5 types of T-Lyphocytes? Helper T-Cells, Cytoxic T-Cells, Suppressor T-Cells, Memory T-Cells, and Delayed Hypersensitivity T-Cells
Which lymphokine stiumlates suppressor T-Cells? Interleukin 2
What is the role of Suppressor T-Cells? Suppresses the function of Cytoxic T-Cells and Helper T-Cells
What is meant by Self tolerance? Recognition of Self
Self Tolerance develops from what? The preprocessing of of T-Lymphocytes in the Thymus and B Lymphocytes in the bone Marrow
What are some examples of Autoimmune diseases? 1. Rheumatic Fever 2. Golmerulonephritis 3. Myasthenia Gravis 4. Lupus
Created by: Tri 2



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