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aplus chapter 8


80 conductor IDE cable an ide cable that has 40 pins but uses 80 wires,40 of which are ground wires designed to reduce crosstalk on the cable
active partition the primary partition on the hard drive that boots the os
american national standards institute a nonprofit organization dedicated to creating trade and communication standards
advanced technology attachment packet interface atapi
autodetection a feature of system bios and hard drives that automatically identifies and configures a new drive in bios setup
basic disk a way to partition a hard drive,used by all versions of windows,that stores information about the drive in a partition table at the beginning of the drive
blockmode a method of data transfer between hard drive and memory that allows multiple data transfers on a single software interrupt
boot record the first sector of a floppy disk or hard drive volume, it contains information about the disk or volume
boot sector boot record
cluster one or more sectos that constitute the smallest unit of space on a disk for storing data.also known as a file allocation unit
direct memory access transfer mode used by devices to transfer data to the memory without involving the cpu
drive image an exact duplicate of a hard drive stored on another media such as a cd or a dvd
extended partition more then one logical drive
external sata a standard for external drives based on sata that uses a special external shielded sata cable up to 2 meters long.esata is up to six times faster then usb or firewire
fat12 the 12 bit wide,one column file allocation table for a floppy disk,containing information about how each cluster or file allocation unit on the disk is currently used.
fault tolerance the degree to which a system can tolerate failures.
file allocation table a table on the hard drive or floppy disk used by the fat file system that tracks the clusters used to contain a file
file system the overrall structure that an os uses to name,store,and organize files on a disk
floppy disk drive a drive that can hold either a 5 1/2 or 3 1/4 inch floppy disk
formatting preparing a hard drive volume,logical drive, or floppy disk for use by placing tracks and sectors on its surface to store information
hard disk drive device for storing and retrieving digital information, primarily computer data.
hard drive the main secondary storage device of a pc
head the top or bottom surface of one platter on a hard drive.each platter has two heads
high level formatting formatting performed by the windows program,windows installation progam,or the disk management utlity
host adapter the circuit board that controls a scsi bus supporting as many as seven or fifteen seperate devices
hot plugging plugging in a device while the computer is turned on
hot swapping hot plugging
hybrid hard drives a hard drive that uses both magnetic and ssd technologies
integrated device electronics a hard drive whoses disk controller is integrated into the drive,eliminating the need for a controller cable and thus increasing speed as well as reducing price
logical unit number a number assigned to a logical device,such as a tray in a cd changer,that is part of a physical scsi device,which is assigned a scsi id.
logical drives a portion or all of a hard drive extended partition that is treated by the operating system as though it were a physical drive
low level formatting a process,usually performed by the factory,that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors and tests for bad spots on the disk surface
magnetic hard drive one of two technologies used by hard drives where data is stored as magnetic spots on disks that rotate at a high speed
mirror volume the term used by windows for the raid level 1 that duplicats data on one drive to another drive and is used for fault tolerance
new technology file system ntfs
operating system formatting high level formatting
parallel ata an older ide cabling method that uses a 40 pin flat or round data cable or an 80 conductor cable and a 40 pin ide connector
programmed input output transfer mode The data transfer mode used by earlier IDE drives. These modes used the CPU's registers for data transfer in contrast with DMA, which transfers directly between main memory and the peripheral device.
primary partition a hard disk partition that can contain only one volume.contains a volume system
redundant array of inexpensive disks raid raid
raid 0 using space from two or more physical diska to increase the disk space available for a single volume.
raid 1 a type of drive imaging that duplicates data on one drive to another drive and is used for fault tolerance
raid 5 a technique that stripes data across three or more drives and uses parity checking,so if one drive fails,the other drive can recreate the data stored on the failed drive
raid -5 volumes raid 5
read/write head a sealed,magnetic coil device that moves across the surface of a disk eith reading data from or writing dat to the disk
ready drive the vista technology that supports a hybrid hard drive
scsi id a number from 0 to 15 assigned to each scsi device attached to the daisy chain
scsi host adapter card a card that manages the scsi bus and serves as the gateway to the system bus
serial ata an atapi cabling method that uses a narrower and more reliable then the 80 conductor cable
serial ata cable an ide cable that is narrower and has fewer pins than the parallel ide 80 conductor cable
serial attached scsi sas a scsi standard that allows for more then 15 devices on a single scsi chain.
simple volume a type of dynamic volume used on a single hard drive that corresponds to a primary partition on a hard disk
self monitoring analysis and reporting technology s.m.a.r.t.
solid state device an electronic device with no moving parts
solid state drive a hard drive that has no moving parts
spanning using a spanned volume to increase the size of a volume
stripped volume a type of dynamic hard drive used for two or more hard drives that writes to the disks evenly rather that filling up allotted space on one and the moving on to the next
terminating resistor the resistor added at the end of a SCSI chain to dampen the voltage at the end of the chain
volume a primary partition that has been assigned a drive letter and can be formatted with a file system such as ntfs
solid state drive a storage device that uses memory chips to store data instead of spinning disks
solid state drive jump drives, flash memory cards
scsi small computer system interface
host adapter control communication betwen the scsi bus and the pc
scsi a fast interface between a host adapter and the cpu that can daisy chain as many as 7 or 15 devices on a single bus
atapi an interface standard that allows tape drives ,optical drives,and other drives to be treated like an ide hard drive by the system
direct memory access dma a number identifying a channel whereby a device can pass data to memory without involving the cpu.shortcut for data to move from device to memory
high level formatting process creates the boot record,file system,and root directory on the volume or logical drive and makes the volume or drive bootable
hot plugging the computer will sense the plugged in device and configure it without rebooting it
ntfs the file system for the windows 2000/xp/vista operating system
ntfs cannot be accessed by other operating systems such as dos or windows me.
ntfs provides increased reliability and security in comparison to other methods of organizing and accessing file systems
raid several methods of configuring multiple hard drives to store data to increase logical volume size and improve performance
raid ensures if one hard drive fails that the data is still available on another hard drive
raid 5 drives increase performance and provide fault tolerance
s.m.a.r.t. a system bios and hard drive feature that monitors hard disk performance,disk spin up time,temperature,distance between the head and the disk
s.m.a.r.t. feature that tries to predict when the drive will fail based on a number of factors
hard disk drive consists of one or more rigid (hence "hard") rapidly rotating discs (platters) coated with magnetic material, and with magnetic heads arranged to write data to the surfaces and read it from them.
enhanced ide broke the 528 Meg barrier, it also provided support for up to four EIDE devices.
enhanced ide These devices could be physical hard drives or devices like CDROM drives, high capacity removable media and Tape Backup drives. The four drive capability is provided by having Primary and Secondary IDE channels, each with a Master and a Slave device.
cocentric cicles tracks
byte segments in a sector 512
responsible for writing and reading data to tracks and sectors firmware on a circuit board
logical block addressing all the sectors on the hard drive no matter where they are located
basic disk single hard drive that works independently of other hard drives
active partition bootable
active partition primary
logical drive assigned a letter
low level formatting factory sets the tracks,sectors,ground work for pc
ntfs fat32 types of file systems
extended partition dynamic disk
three current methods used by internal hard drives parallel ata,serial ata,scsi
ata interface standards define how hard drives and other drives cd,dvd,..interact with computer system
three types of ata interface standard pata sata scsi
technical committee t13 developed the ata interface standards
red stripe pin 1
types of pata data cables dma and pio and independent device timing
forty wires for communication and data and forty to reduce crosstalk 80 conductor ide cable
ultra dma data is transferred twice for each clock beat
independent device timing both devices run at the same speed
parallel data path run next to each other
serial data path one after another
scsi system bus to peripheral communication
scsi 7 to 15
embedded scsi on the motherboard
host adapter scsi
two external scsi devices embedded and host adapter
scsi id identifies the physical device that can have several logical devices embedded in it
three main revisions of scsi regular ,fast,ultra
fibre channel can connect up to 126 devices on one bus have to have more then five hard drives strung together to make it work
raid 5 increases performance and provides fault tolerance
spindle speed revolutions per minute,actual spinning speed of the hard drive,faster you get the data
buffers improve hard drive performance
raid 5 requires three hard drives
80 ide conductor cables are color coded gray black blue
possible configurations for eide devices in a system four
san network that has the primary purpose of providing large amounts of data storage
Created by: cgeaski