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NPB 114 MT3

Pancreatic Enzyme Secretions (9) DNase, RNase, Amylase, Carboxy Peptidase, Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, Lipase, Phospholipase, Cholesterol Esterase
Trypsinogen -?-> Trypsin Enterokinase or Autocatylze
Trypsin Inhibitor Protein preventing breakdown in pancreas. paracellular in pancreas
Chymotrypsin Precursor Chymotrypsinogen
Carboxypeptidase Precursor Pro carboxypepsidase
Elastase precursor Pro Elastase
Cholesterol Esterase (Function) Targets Esterified Cholesterol -> FFA + Cholesterol
Acinar Cell Ionic flux change from low to high secretion (cl, k, hco3, na) Cl (decrease), K (same), HCO3 (increase), Na (No change)
Pancreatic Secretion (3 Phases) Cephalic-20%, Vagal response to CCK and Secretin; Gastric- 5% in response to Distension and Proteins via Vagal; Intestinal 80% Acid-> S-Cell Secretin secretion, AA,FFA,short p -> I-Cell CCK secretion, Distention -> CCK, (CCK Secretin)-> PNS -> Pancreas
? -> PNS -> Duct and Acinar Cells (what's the outcome as well) CCK -> HCO3 and pancreatic Enzymes
Lobule Triade Portal vein, Heptatic Artery, Bile Duct
Lubule transverse (3) Sinusoid (capillary), Heptatocyte, Bile Canaliculus (bile tube)
Sphincter of oddi (function) Common Bile Duct Sphincter into Duodenum
What hormone causes 1. Oddi to relax 2. Gall baldder contraction CCK via PNS -myoepithelium around gall contracts
Cholestasis -Symptoms (3) -Causes Poor fat digestion, diarrhea, jaundice (too much bile salt in plasma) due to low calcium and high cholesterol (cause of Gall stone)
Goblet Cell -Function and Location In SI and LI -Secretes mucus -Forms feces
Amylose breaks into (2) -Absorption? Maltose, Maltotriose not readily absorbable
Amylopectin Subunits Maltose, maltotriose, alpha limit detrin (isomaltase to break it down)
Lactose composition Glucose and galactose
Sucrose composition Fructose and Glucose
Sucrose Isomaltase -Location -under what conditions does it increase? -What does it digest? (3) -SI, Brush Border -Increases in high starch diet -Digests Maltase, maltotriose, and alpha limit detrin into glucose molecules
Why do you get Diarrhea after fasting for a long time when you eat carbs Because Sucrose Isomaltase decreases too much and sugar isn't absorbed so water is also retained with the sugars
Lactase Phlorizine Hydrolase (LPH) -function -correlation with age -Breaks lactose into glucose and galactose -Decreases with age
Trehalase Function (Hint: Enzyme in SI) -Type of Bond Digests Trehalose into Glucose. 1,1 alpha linkage
Maltase Function and % of activity Maltose Breakdown (only 20% compared to sucrose isomaltase)
Maltose Composition 2 Glucose
SDGT-1 -What type of transport? -ATP dependent or not? -What type of monosaccharide can it move? Sodium Dependent Glucose Transporter Secondary transport (indirectly needs ATP) -Moves glucose or galactose
GLUT-5 -What type of transport? -ATP dependent or not? -What type of monosaccharide can it move? where to? Facilitated no need for ATP Moves Fructose into cell
GLUT-2 -What type of transport? -ATP dependent or not? -What type of monosaccharide can it move? Facilitated no need for ATP Moves fructose, glucose, or galactose out of the cell into basolateral end
Carboxypeptidase -Function snips proteins on the apical end of cell starting from the CARBOXY end Brush Border
Aminopeptidase -Function snips proteins on the apical end of cell starting from the AMINO end Brush Border
Dipeptidase (Brush Border Peptidase) -Function Snips proteins 2 at a time from carboxy end
Transporting Protein from cell to Circulation (2) -Trade Protein for sodium (need ATP to take sodium out) doesn't need gradient because ATP -Facilitated Diffusion (needs gradient)
Fate of Protein (5) -Transported into circulation -Used as fuel (possible for synthesis) -Converted into another AA (non essential probably) -Converted to Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) Serine and Glycine -Converted into Signal Molecule N.O. (via Arginine)
Co Lipase -Function Because when fat gets covered with bile salts or phospholipids lipase can't break the fat down. CoLipase allows the lipase to enter the micelle
Fat Absorbtion from Micelle to Exocytosis -Which molecules gets co transported and which can diffuse? -Where do they go in the cell? -Packaging? 1. FFA and Bile Salt can be co transported with Sodium 2. FFA, BS-H, 2MG, Lysophospholipid, and cholesterol can diffuse 3. FFA, Lyso, 2MG gets packaged into TG in SER 4. TG surrounded by apoprotein makes a chylomicron which is now water soluble
What's Redundant about lipase on a hepatocyte? Fat is broken down during digestion and then after being made into TG at the SER, we break it down again for the liver
Steatorrhea (malabsorption) -What is it? -Due to: (Hint: not enough time to absorb, lack of bile) Oily Feces Due to short bowel syndrome, Biliary Disorder or Liver Disorder
Alli and Olstra -What? Alli prevents fat absorption (could cause diarrhea) Olestra is a non digestable fat
Celiac Sprue Disease (Celiac Disease) -Who gets it? Immune response to gluten -Irish and british get it
Tropical Sprue -What? Atrophy or the crypts -could cause steatorrhrea
Whipple's Diease (3 problems) - villi too close so decreases the surface area for absorption - Macrophage clogs blood vessel in villi -Distance from surface to circulation is far
Intestinal Restriction -What -Problem -Intestinal Bypass -Fat soluble vitamins not absorbed
Restrictive Sugery - 2 Kinds 1. Make stomach Smaller to increase distension for less food 2. Lap band (Adjustable gastric band)
Restrictive and Malabsorbtive surgery (GASTRIC BYPASS) -Dumping syndrome Jejunum and ileum is attached to stomach and then meets up with duodenum eventually so bile is secreted much later in the intestine. makes a shorter absorption tube Dumping syndrome can occur because no pyloric sphincter since SI is in body/cardiac regio
Ghrelin -What's it do? increase food intake (especially fatty/ high calorie foods)
Restrictive Surgery Problems (stapling stomach) Reports hungry or not hungry (low levels of ghrellin) all the time
Gastro-Colic/Ileo-Colic Reflex Load leads to motility in colon
LI Function 1. Water Absorption 2. K secretion 3. ion Absorb 4. Form Feces
Giant Migrating Contractions -Where -Followed by what (sometimes) 1. LI 2. Bowel Movement
Signal for Bowel Movement? Anal Rectal Vault Distention
Anal Rectal Vault -Functions Storage and Water Absorption
Cephalic Phase of Pancreatic Secretions 20%, Vagal response to CCK and Secretin;
Gastric Phase of Pancreatic Secretions 5% in response to Distension and Proteins via Vagal;
Intestinal Phase of Pancreatic Secretions -What Signals for what secretion 80% Acid-> S-Cell Secretin secretion, AA,FFA,short p -> I-Cell CCK secretion, Distention -> CCK, (CCK Secretin)-> PNS -> Pancreas
Secondary Bile Salt Pathway Secreted, goes to LI, Modified, reabsorbed, lIver
BSEP (Bile Sat Exporter Pump) Moves Deprotonated Bile Salt (Cojugated (add amino acid) increases solubility)
Sodium Dependent Bile Salt Transporter (NTCP) Brings bilt salt from sinusoid to hepatocyte
What vessel brings BS back to Heptatocyte Portal Vein
Biliruben -What is it -Fat digestion -RBC waste -Does NOT help with fat digestion -Needs to be conjugated too to be eliminated
Cholangiocyte -Role Secretes HCO3 into canaliculous(bile) just like duct cells
What's Sodium's role in Duct and Cholangeocytes? Moves out Protons into sinusoid
Secondary Active transport Needs ATP to have the Na gradient to move in stuff
Pinocytosis endocytosis
Created by: nqbui